[52] Some commentators have rejected Jung's characterization of Freud, observing that in texts such as Totem and Taboo (1913) Freud directly addresses the interface between the unconscious and society at large. [28] While the shadow usually personifies the personal unconscious, the anima or the Wise Old Man can act as representatives of the collective unconscious. Just as the human body is a museum, so to speak, of its phylogenetic history, so too is the psyche. [20] Archetypes and instincts coexist in the collective unconscious as interdependent opposites, Jung would later clarify. For example, a picture of a diamond represented "self"; a square represented "Earth". Jung encouraged direct conscious dialogue of the patients with these personalities within. Therefore, argues Jung, Freudian psychoanalysis would neglect important sources for unconscious ideas, in the case of a patient with neurosis around a dual-mother image. The term “collective unconscious” first appeared in Jung’s 1916 essay, “The Structure of the Unconscious“. "Psychic conflicts in a child. The psychotherapeutic practice of analytical psychology revolves around examining the patient's relationship to the collective unconscious. Completed in his 81st year, it is Jung's last major work on the synthesis of opposites in alchemy and psychology.[27]. Jung, Volume 9 (Part 2): Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self", "Abstracts : Vol 9.2 : AION: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self", "Collected Works of C.G. [39] Jung's leading example of this phenomenon was a paranoid-schizophrenic patient who could see the sun's dangling phallus, whose motion caused wind to blow on earth. In an early definition of the term, Jung writes: "Archetypes are typical modes of apprehension, and wherever we meet with uniform and regularly recurring modes of apprehension we are dealing with an archetype, no matter whether its mythological character is recognized or not." If we accept that nature, or heredity, has some influence on the individual psyche, we must examine the question of how this influence takes hold in the real world. [13] Subjects covered include Freud's theory of hysteria, the analysis of dreams, the theory of psychoanalysis, and more. He underlines the fact that an unsatisfactory psychological relationship between parents may be an important cause of disorders in childhood. It became a standard work and was translated into Spanish, Portuguese, French, Dutch and Italian as well as English. The many predetermined scripts for animal behavior are called innate releasing mechanisms. [12], In an early definition of the term, Jung writes: "Archetypes are typical modes of apprehension, and wherever we meet with uniform and regularly recurring modes of apprehension we are dealing with an archetype, no matter whether its mythological character is recognized or not. [31][32], The book brings together Jung's essays on general questions of analytic therapy and dream analysis. Jung, Volume 15: Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature", "Abstracts: Vol 15: The Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature", "Collected Works of C.G. He concluded that the patient's vision and the ancient Liturgy arose from the same source in the collective unconscious. This collective unconscious does not develop individually but is inherited. Personal experiences both activate archetypes in the mind and give them meaning and substance for individual. [4] This essay distinguishes between the "personal", Freudian unconscious, filled with sexual fantasies and repressed images, and the "collective" unconscious encompassing the soul of humanity at large.[5]. [4], Princeton University Press published these volumes in the United States as part of its Bollingen Series of books. [35], In his clinical psychiatry practice, Jung identified mythological elements which seemed to recur in the minds of his patients—above and beyond the usual complexes which could be explained in terms of their personal lives. "[78] This is the idea of monopsychism. He gave this theory a much wider application, for example, in "Flying Saucers", about the origins of a myth which he regarded as compensating the scientistic trends of the present technological era. Archetypes and collective representations Jung considered that 'the shadow ' and the anima/animus differ from the other archetypes in the fact that their content is more directly related to the individual's personal situation', and less to the collective unconscious: by contrast, 'the collective unconscious is personified as a Wise Old Man '. He argued that the collective unconscious had profound influence on the lives of individuals, who lived out its symbols and clothed them in meaning through their experiences. There is also an additional essay, "The Realities of Practical Psychotherapy", which was found among Jung's posthumous papers. In "The Significance of Constitution and Heredity in Psychology" (November 1929), Jung wrote: And the essential thing, psychologically, is that in dreams, fantasies, and other exceptional states of mind the most far-fetched mythological motifs and symbols can appear autochthonously at any time, often, apparently, as the result of particular influences, traditions, and excitations working on the individual, but more often without any sign of them. Jung, Volume 5: Symbols of Transformation", "Abstracts of the Collected Works of C.G. James M. Glass, "The Philosopher and the Shaman: The Political Vision as Incantation". Chapters on the ego, the shadow, and the anima and animus, provide a valuable summary of these elementary concepts in Jungian psychology. [11] Among the latter nine works, "The Content of the Psychoses" (1908) and two papers from 1956 and 1958, respectively, discuss Jung's conclusions after long experience in the psychotherapy of schizophrenia.[12]. This process of ego-differentiation provides the task of the first half of life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. In the interpretation of analytical psychologist Mary Williams, a patient who understands the impact of the archetype can help to dissociate the underlying symbol from the real person who embodies the symbol for the patient. Philosopher Walter Kaufmann has criticized the arrangement of the Collected Works as unsystematic, and R. F. C. Hull's translation as occasionally inaccurate. 1954. column on 4 May 2015 (check views). Jung and the Challenge of Psychophysical Reality [unus mundus], Part 1: The Battle of the Giants. Jung, Volume 2: Experimental Researches", "Collected Works of C.G. )[72], In a minimalist interpretation of what would then appear as "Jung's much misunderstood idea of the collective unconscious", his idea was "simply that certain structures and predispositions of the unconscious are common to all of us...[on] an inherited, species-specific, genetic basis". The circular shape of the flying saucer confirms its symbolic connection to repressed but psychically necessary ideas of divinity. [22], Humans experience five main types of instinct, wrote Jung: hunger, sexuality, activity, reflection, and creativity. An idea developed and refined throughout his career, Jung considered archetypes as an aspect of a 'collective unconscious'. The collective unconscious comprises in itself the psychic life of our ancestors right back to the earliest beginnings. [15], The Symbolic Life, volume 18 in The Collected Works, contains miscellaneous writings that Jung published after the Collected Works had been planned; minor and fugitive works that he wished to assign to a special volume, and early writings that came to light in the course of research. His idea of the archetype involves profound attitudes towards man's existence and intimates values through which very many people have found a new significance in their lives.[15]. [43], Animals all have some innate psychological concepts which guide their mental development. Jung's seminars are dealt with in detail. These instincts, listed in order of increasing abstraction, elicit and constrain human behavior, but also leave room for freedom in their implementation and especially in their interplay. The Journal of Analytical Psychology calls this volume: An eloquent witness to Jung's greatness of mind and heart. [64] Psychotherapy patients, it seemed to Jung, often described fantasies and dreams which repeated elements from ancient mythology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Mysterium Coniunctionis, subtitled An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy, is Volume 14 in The Collected Works, and was published in 1970 by Princeton University Press in the US and by Routledge and Kegan Paul in the UK. "[10], As modern humans go through their process of individuation, moving out of the collective unconscious into mature selves, they establish a persona—which can be understood simply as that small portion of the collective psyche which they embody, perform, and identify with. Jung's definition of the term is inconsistent in his many writings. Jung, Volume 1: Psychiatric Studies", "Collected Works of C.G. For Jung, "the archetype is the introspectively recognizable form of a priori psychic orderedness".These images must be thought of as lacking in solid content, hence as unconscious. Archetypes are also very close analogies to instincts, in that, long before any consciousness develops, ... unconscious understandings of the human condition and the collective knowledge of our species in the construct of the collective unconscious. [70][71] (Conversely, religious critics including Martin Buber accused Jung of wrongly placing psychology above transcendental factors in explaining human experience. "Psychic conflicts in a child. Talk:Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. It covers many and varied fields of study, including among others: psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethnology, and comparative religion. Jung explores how Christianity came into being when it did, the importance of the figure of Christ, and the identification of that figure with the archetype of the Self. [3] Proponents suggest that it is borne out by findings of psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology. [66], Jung also distinguished the collective unconscious and collective consciousness, between which lay "an almost unbridgeable gulf over which the subject finds himself suspended". In this way, the patient no longer uncritically transfers their feelings about the archetype onto people in everyday life, and as a result can develop healthier and more personal relationships. 1970. Freud & Psychoanalysis, volume 4 in The Collected Works, contains most of Jung's published writings on Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis from 1906-1916, with two papers from later years. The word association studies described in this book were an important contribution to diagnostic psychology and psychiatry, and show the influence on Jung of Eugen Bleuler and Sigmund Freud. [73] Thus "one could as easily speak of the 'collective arm' – meaning the basic pattern of bones and muscles which all human arms share in common."[74]. [49] At the same time, archetypes covertly organize human experience and memory, their powerful effects becoming apparent only indirectly and in retrospect. The collective unconscious, or the objective psyche as it is less frequently known, is a number of innate thoughts, feelings, instincts, and memories that reside in the unconsciousness of all people. In 1911, Jung said that the book "laid down a programme to be followed for the next few decades of my life." [53], Elements from the collective unconscious can manifest among groups of people, who by definition all share a connection to these elements. Edition Notes 4 Classifications Library of Congress BF'23'J823'V.9\1, BF175 .J8313 1980 The Physical Object Pagination xi, 451 p. Number of pages 451 ID Numbers Open Library OL21188741M Internet Archive archetypesco00slsn ISBN 10 0691018332, 0691097615 LC Control Number 75-126, 82182882 … [29][30], Practice of Psychotherapy, volume 16 in The Collected Works, contains essays on aspects of analytical therapy, specifically the transference, abreaction, and dream analysis. D. H. Rosen, S. M. Smith, H. L. Huston, & G. Gonzalez, "Empirical Study of Associations Between Symbols and Their Meanings: Evidence of Collective Unconscious (Archetypal) Memory"; Jeffrey M. Brown & Terence P. Hannigan, ". There is also a 1916 essay on the therapeutic uses of active imagination. Pronunciation note: The "ch" in archetype is a transliteration of the Greek chi (χ) and is most commonly articulated in English as a "k". It contains "On the Psychology of Dementia Praecox" (1907), which Abraham Brill described as "indispensable for every student of psychiatry;" as well as nine other papers in psychiatry, all of which demonstrating Jung's original thinking about the origins of mental illness and give insight into the development of his later concepts such as the archetypes and the collective unconscious. Extensive detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online. In addition to the 20-volume Collected Works, the following titles are also included as part of the Bollingen Series: Psychiatric Studies, volume 1 in The Collected Works, contains Jung's papers written between 1902 and 1905, focusing on descriptive and experimental psychiatry from his early days in medical practice. June Singer writes: But the collective unconscious lies beyond the conceptual limitations of individual human consciousness, and thus cannot possibly be encompassed by them. A digital edition, complete except for the General Index in Volume 20, is also available. Where possible, information is provided about the origin of works that were first conceived as lectures. [25], Jung believed that proof of the existence of a collective unconscious, and insight into its nature, could be gleaned primarily from dreams and from active imagination, a waking exploration of fantasy. Sometimes he seems to regard the predisposition to experience certain images as understandable in terms of some genetic model"[75] – as with the collective arm. Regarding the Mother archetype, Jung suggests that not only can it apply to mothers, grandmothers, stepmothers, mothers-in-law, and mothers in mythology, but to various concepts, places, objects, and animals: Other symbols of the mother in a figurative sense appear in things representing the goal of our longing for redemption, such as Paradise, the Kingdom of God, the Heavenly Jerusalem. Jung. [61], The universal applicability of archetypes has not escaped the attention of marketing specialists, who observe that branding can resonate with consumers through appeal to archetypes of the collective unconscious. The archetypes and the collective unconscious This edition published in 1980 by s.n in S.l. … [46], Maloney (1999) asked people questions about their feelings to variations on images featuring the same archetype: some positive, some negative, and some non-anthropomorphic. Jung, Volume 4: Freud & Psychoanalysis", "Abstracts: Vol 4: Freud & Psychoanalysis", "Collected Works of C.G. [15], Development of Personality, volume 17 in The Collected Works, contains papers on child psychology, education, and individuation. The Journal of Analytical Psychology said of this book: What Jung has to convey is so truly original and so far ranging in its implications that I suspect this book will be a real challenge even to those most psychologically sophisticated. So, in their zeal to investigate those newly opened vistas, they projected their fantasies and dream images into matter. They show the influence on Jung of Eugen Bleuler and Pierre Janet. An appendix contains documents relating to Jung's association with the International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy. [15], Collection of this material relied on three circumstances: First, after Jung returned from medical practice, he devoted more time to writing—after 1950 he wrote about sixty books and papers. Jung writes: We have only to disregard the dependence of dream language on environment and substitute "eagle" for "aeroplane," "dragon" for "automobile" or "train," "snake-bite" for "injection," and so forth, in order to arrive at the more universal and more fundamental language of mythology. [14], The Times Literary Supplement said that "This volume is an excellent introduction into Jungian theories and demonstrates their fundamental differences from psychoanalysis. The collective unconscious comprises in itself the psychic life of our ancestors right back to the earliest beginnings. According to Jung, the human collective unconscious is populated by instincts, as well as by archetypes: universal symbols such as The Great Mother, the Wise Old Man, the Shadow, the Tower, Water, and the Tree of Life. Jung, Volume 18: The Symbolic Life", "Collected Works of C.G. 1977. 1st ed. ^C. WikiProject Books (Rated Stub-class) This redirect is within the scope of WikiProject Books. Jung, Volume 20: General Index", Princeton University Press catalog of the Bollingen series, with links to listings of individual works, Routledge imprint listing all 20 volumes of first English edition, Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Collected_Works_of_C._G._Jung&oldid=1000688255#Archetypes_and_the_Collective_Unconscious, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. In the foreword to Symbols of Transformation, Jung wrote: it was the explosion of all those psychic contents which could find no room, no breathing space, in the constricting atmosphere of Freudian psychology…. Several of the volumes are extensively illustrated; each contains an index and most contain a bibliography. Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self, part 2 of volume 9 in The Collected Works, was originally published in German (1951), and is a major work of Jung's later years. 1969. The existence of these archaic strata is presumably the source of man's belief in reincarnations and in memories of "previous experiences". [33][34], Jung repeatedly emphasizes the importance of the psychology of parents and teachers in a child's development. Even a simple hungry feeling can lead to many different responses, including metaphorical sublimation. In humans, the psyche mediates between the primal force of the collective unconscious and the experience of consciousness or dream. Many of these connotations were obscure to laypeople. We cannot, therefore, make controlled experiments to prove the existence of the collective unconscious, for the psyche of man, holistically conceived, cannot be brought under laboratory conditions without doing violence to its nature. [59], Jung called the UFO phenomenon a "living myth", a legend in the process of consolidation. Finally there is a chapter on child development and individuation. After the philosophical idea of the unconscious, in the form presented chiefly by Carus and von Hartmann, had … [24] Several readers of Jung have observed that in his treatment of the collective unconscious, Jung suggests an unusual mixture of primordial, "lower" forces, and spiritual, "higher" forces. The compilation by the editors dates from 1945 onward. There is also an outline of the theory of child development, a snapshot from the life of a girl called Anna and her parents, and a discussion of marriage as a psychological relationship. On October 19, 1936, Jung delivered a lecture "The Concept of the Collective Unconscious" to the Abernethian Society at St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London. From Carl Gustav Jung's Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious to Individual Archetypal Pattern. In effect, they dreamed a vast collective dream using chemical operations and materials as imagery and subject matter for that dream. "[2] Critics of the collective unconscious concept have called it unscientific and fatalistic, or otherwise very difficult to test scientifically (due to the mystical aspect of the collective unconscious). The former period extends from the time of enthusiastic collaboration between Jung and Freud, through that when Jung's growing appreciation of religious experience and his criticism of Freud's emphasis on psychopathology led to their final break. As we mature the archetypal plan unfolds through a programmed sequence which Jung called the stages of life. According to Jung, collective consciousness (meaning something along the lines of consensus reality) offered only generalizations, simplistic ideas, and the fashionable ideologies of the age. Edward F. Edinger poses an important question in the introduction to his book The Mystery of The Conjunctio: One might ask, why alchemy? G. Jung, The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (London 1996) p. 43 ^ C. G. Jung, Man and his Symbols (London 1978) p. 57 ^ Walter A. Shelburne, Mythos and Logos in the Thought of Carl Jung (1988) p. 150 ^ C. G. Jung, Mysterium Coniunctionis (London 1963) p. 106 ^ Stan Gooch, Total Man (London 1975) p. 433 ^ Gooch, p. 433 ^ D. A G. Cook, "Jung" in Richard L. Gregory, The Oxford … In humanity, Jung understood the collective unconscious to be populated by instincts and … ... Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. [1] The series contains revised versions of works previously published, works not previously translated, and new translations of many of Jung's writings. This tension between collective unconscious and collective consciousness corresponds roughly to the "everlasting cosmic tug of war between good and evil" and has worsened in the time of the mass man. Hull, under the editorship of Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham and Gerhard Adler. He regards these as phenomena of cultural assimilation. Together they make up that psychic stratum which has been called the collective unconscious. Every human being, he wrote, "however high his conscious development, is still an archaic man at the deeper levels of his psyche. For example: "The snake-motif was certainly not an individual acquisition of the dreamer, for snake-dreams are very common even among city-dwellers who have probably never seen a real snake. The word archetype appeared in European texts as early as 1545. [42] Jung himself said that Freud had discovered a collective archetype, the Oedipus complex, but that it "was the first archetype Freud discovered, the first and only one". Jung; Volume 5: Symbols of Transformation", "Collected Works of C.G. Percival charges Jung with excessive determinism and writes: "He could not countenance the possibility that people sometimes create ideas that cannot be predicted, even in principle." Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Archetypes hold control of the human life cycle. [54] The common importance of the collective unconscious makes people ripe for political manipulation, especially in the era of mass politics. [16], A complete list of archetypes cannot be made, nor can differences between archetypes be absolutely delineated. Information about the Routledge series can be found in its own catalogue. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. It first elaborates Freud's concept of sexual libido into Jung's own concept: psychic energy. The archetypes are components of the collective unconscious and serve to organize, direct and inform human thought and behaviour. Jung, Complete Digital Edition", "Collected Works of C.G. Jung's exposition of the collective unconscious builds on the classic issue in psychology and biology regarding nature versus nurture. An excellent introduction into Jungian theories…"[15], Symbols of Transformation, volume 5 in The Collected Works, is a complete revision of Psychology of the Unconscious (1911–12), Jung's first important statement of his independent position in psychology.[16]. [7], The book begins with Jung's doctoral dissertation "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena", a case study of an adolescent girl who claimed to be a psychic medium. [20][21] In this volume, Jung's theory is first established through three essays, followed by essays on specific archetypes, and finally a section relating them to the process of individuation. [39], The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy, "Collected Works of C.G. [58] However, above and in addition to the primordial collective unconscious, people within a certain culture may share additional bodies of primal collective ideas. Their origins may be traced to his earliest publication, “On the Psychology and Pathology of Socalled Occult Phenomena” (1902),* in which he described the fantasies of an hysterical medium. ", Niesser, Arthur. [68][69], Organized religion, exemplified by the Catholic Church, lies more with the collective consciousness; but, through its all-encompassing dogma it channels and molds the images which inevitably pass from the collective unconscious into the minds of people. Jung, Volume 8: Structure & Dynamics of the Psyche [, "Abstracts: Vol 8: The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche [, "Abstracts: Vol 9.1: The Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious", "Collected Works of C.G. This give us access to the primordial images that underlie all thinking and have a considerable influence even on our scientific ideas.[33]. Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature (sometimes styled as The Spirit of...) is volume 15 in The Collected Works, and contains nine essays, written between 1922 and 1941, on Paracelsus, Freud, Picasso, sinologist Richard Wilhelm, James Joyce's Ulysses, artistic creativity generally, and the source of artistic creativity in archetypal structures. This localization explains a good deal of their strangeness: they bring into our ephemeral consciousness an unknown psychic life belonging to a remote past. For example, mythology offers many examples of the "dual mother" narrative, according to which a child has a biological mother and a divine mother. Jung, Volume 3: Psychogenesis of Mental Disease", "Collected Works of C.G. The term "collective unconscious" first appeared in Jung's 1916 essay, "The Structure of the Unconscious". Or it may mean that someone is sexually impotent, in that they have had their spiritual ego body engaged. [36] The most obvious patterns applied to the patient's parents: "Nobody knows better than the psychotherapist that the mythologizing of the parents is often pursued far into adulthood and is given up only with the greatest resistance. Groups of people can become especially receptive to specific symbols due to the historical situation they find themselves in. [19], On exactly one night in its entire lifetime, the yucca moth discovers pollen in the opened flowers of the yucca plant, forms some into a pellet, and then transports this pellet, with one of its eggs, to the pistil of another yucca plant. Psychiatrist and Jungian analyst Lionel Corbett argues that the contemporary terms "autonomous psyche" or "objective psyche" are more commonly used today in the practice of depth psychology rather than the traditional term of the "collective unconscious. He maintained that the education of children needs teachers who not only know about learning but who can also develop their own personalities. It is the mind of our unknown ancestors, their way of thinking and feeling, their way of experiencing life and the world, gods and men. [24][25], In the first paper, Jung theorizes that the European conflict was essentially a psychological crisis originating in the collective unconscious of individuals. [8], Jung linked the collective unconscious to 'what Freud called "archaic remnants" – mental forms whose presence cannot be explained by anything in the individual's own life and which seem to be aboriginal, innate, and inherited shapes of the human mind'. 1967. These elements appeared even in patients who were probably not exposed to the original story. It derives from the Latin noun archetypum via the Greek noun arkhetypon and adjective arkhetypos, meaning "first-moulded". The book has Jung's first mention of the archetype, as well as his later views on its nature. “A group experience takes place on a lower level of consciousness than the experience of an individual. ISBN 9781311820082; Remo, F. Roth: Return of the World Soul, Wolfgang Pauli, C.G. Neo-Jungian concepts. It contains 160 items spanning sixty years; they include forewords, replies to questionnaires, encyclopedia articles, occasional addresses, and letters on technical subjects. [15], Several important chapters elucidate Jung's ideas on synchronicity, which were later published separately as Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle.[19]. Jung, Volume 10: Civilization in Transition", "Abstracts : Vol 10 : Civilization in Transition", "Collected Works of C.G. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious by Carl Gustav Jung, June 6, 1991, Routledge edition, [62][63], Jung contrasted the collective unconscious with the personal unconscious, the unique aspects of an individual study which Jung says constitute the focus of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. The Routledge series includes the same volumes with the same numbers, but with many different publication dates and some minor variations in the styling of titles. [5][37], This volume is the general index to the eighteen published textual volumes in the Collected Works of C.G. [52] Schizophrenics, it is said, fully identify with the collective unconscious, lacking a functioning ego to help them deal with actual difficulties of life. Its somewhat misleading title in English was The Psychology of the Unconscious. Psychic activity transcended the brain contains his profoundly interesting parallel between the transference phenomena alchemical... 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Psychoanalysis, and occult religious ideas could contribute understanding of the intellectual, feeling and...: archetypes and instincts coexist in the collective unconscious as we mature the plan. “ a group experience takes place on a lower level of consciousness or dream their own personalities 2015 ( views... 31 ] [ 38 ] necessary ideas of divinity already-known mythological narrative can clearly help to explain the confusing of. The archetype is often associated with things and places standing for fertility and fruitfulness the... Also develop their own personalities an the archetypes and the collective unconscious wikipedia of the Self transference phenomena and alchemical Symbolism dwells there is appendix. Of consolidation a complete list of archetypes Compatible with Neo-Darwinism and Sociobiology ``! Unique effects of course vary widely, however, since they involve virtually every emotion and situation published. 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