This tool should be beneficial to complete and then share with School and Professionals. Identifying the Function of School Refusal Behavior: A Revision of the School Refusal Assessment Scale. Descriptive functional assessment of school refusal behavior: SRAS The initial version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale consisted of 16 items, 4 for each functional condition mentioned earlier. Recent studies indicate problems with the wording of eight items added to the SRAS to form the SRAS-R. Further work needs to see if it is possible to distinguish between function one and two or if they need to be subsumed under a function of negative reinforcement. The SRAS was designed to assess the function, rather than the form, of school refusal behaviour and has been used on children aged 6-17 years. Fear or a specific phobia about something at school only accounts for a small percent of youth refusing school 3. Seven children and adolescents, who were currently experiencing difficulties attending school, were evaluated with the School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS), an instrument designed to identify maintaining variables surrounding school refusal behavior. Objective: Psychometric properties of the original and a modified version of the «Einschätzungsskala der Schulverweigerung» (German version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale, SRAS; Kearney & Silverman, 1993; Overmeyer et al., 1994) were analyzed in order to identify alternative ways to revise the SRAS/ESV compared to the existing revision SRAS-R (Kearney, 2002). Find out who you should be dealing with at your current school ; Learn your rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) Learn which types of therapy are recommended for school refusal; There is still limited support for the four-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). Separate child and parent versions were developed, and items are rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale from never (0) to always (6). School refusal is a problem that is stressful for children, families, and school personnel. A repository of free psychological assessment tools. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (P) Name: Date: Please select the answer that best fits the following questions: . All but two items had significant inter-rater reliability on the parent questionnaire with mean correlations for each subscale ranging from .46 to .57. The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was first constructed by Kearney and Silverman (1993) and then revised in 2002 (Kearney). This self-report inventory, which is also available in parent response form, consists of 24 questions that measure the frequency with which a child experiences emotions and behaviors related to school attendance. The revised scale identified four functions of school refusal which included: (a) avoidance of school-related stimuli provoking negative affectivity (e.g., teacher, test), (b) escaping from aversive social or evaluative situations, (c) to get attention from others and (d) to pursue positive tangible reinforcement outside of school (e.g., television, play). School Refusal Assessment £ 10.00 The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R), developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman, is a psychological assessment tool designed to evaluate school refusal disorder symptoms in children and identify their reasons for avoiding school. School Refusal Assessment Scale (revised edition; SRAS-R) (Kearney, 2002). The SRAS was constructed based on the authors clinical observations as well as research studies looking at successful treatment targeting specific behaviours relating to school refusal. Assessment and management of school refusal require a collaborative approach tha… Failing to attend school has significant short- and long-term effects on children's social, emotional, and educational development. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24(4), 235-245. doi:10.1023/A:1020774932043, Kearney, C., & Silverman, W. K. (1993). He complains of nausea and headache most school days and has to be cajoled into getting out of bed, but his mother says he is fine on weekends. 2. This gives the questionnaire both typological and dimensional properties (Kearney & Silverman, 1993). If there are no genuine problems at school then school refusal/separation anxiety symptoms can be improved with firm and supportive encouragement to attend school every day. Supporting your child with school anxiety and refusal If your child is refusing to go to school, or is feeling anxious, here's our information and advice to help you support your child and work with the school. Each item is presented on a Likert scale ranging from 0-6 with 0 being never and 6 being always. The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) and the Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety-Revised (VAA-R) were administered. However, youth normally do score higher in one function or the other. s�Ta��g�>P�0hW�)+�h�Ҳ�k�����l�� �9�I�8�+s&TZ�Us ��v'��R@hI�g@d�=���QX`�C�Ґ~�E,��)�|��@ʷ�9�oR��6�&_�m�5�mt�+��nC���|Z��w`E�癸�I �f'���� �Ü̲��}�D1%�}���n�@�t�hq� ��h������H"Bﰖ�Z��&4\g'� @��wq�fH��Ä�"�o�-���JA�� ��D`�؋�b� �:z��6�>������z���;�kwU@��\z�����p��_'m��ok�P��m��'�L �s�J��j#_�w���G�(�(�\���$�P���„��yx3�)2�:(��a^=0�)���0kA N :*�O�c�L�+�^�$ZI�X���!��� Assessment scale. A parallel questionnaire, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Responding to School Attendance Problems (SEQ-RSAP) has been developed for use with the parents of school refusers, to assess their self-efficacy in relation to helping their child attend school regularly and without difficulty (e.g., “If my child has difficulty attending school, I know what can be done to address this”).. Ryan, age 12, has missed almost three weeks of school so far. Kearney, C. A.; Silverman, W. K. (1993), "Measuring the function of school refusal behavior: The School Refusal Assessment Scale", Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22 (1): 85–86Kearney, C. A. School Refusal Assessment Scale – Revised (- Nederlandse vertaling) (SRAS-R(-NL) Algemene gegevens vragenlijst. The mother, who is eight months pregnant, is frantic; she can't afford to take any more time off work before she delivers. Descriptive functional assessment of school refusal behavior: SRAS The initial version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale consisted of 16 items, 4 for each functional condition mentioned earlier. The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was first constructed by Kearney and Silverman (1993) and then revised in 2002 (Kearney). �"��_����F�͊!b�*��� 9XlN���/A&. School refusal may be a little more understood that when it was identified in the 1930s, but we still haven’t come up with any effective or pragmatic solutions, says Fran Morgan I didn’t choose to be an expert on school refusal; it chose me. Categories one and two refer to school refusal motivated by negative reinforcement. The first two are centred around negative reinforcement and the other two around positive reinforcement of school refusal behaviour. The revised version of the scale was shown to have good concurrent validity for each function subscale with the original version of the scale (r range from .65 to .77). 4. The scale was created to overcome shortcomings from previous classification systems including an over reliance on clinical judgement rather than empirical evidence leading to a lack of rater reliability, issues with validity and lack of utility in treatment (Kearney & … �� [�0�o�%S�v������,l��z�:9;�'y`�W=� ��'� �����5u�A� ���ϗ�̉��,�]�����2�3� &ʌzH�P� �a Comprehensive treatment of school refusal, including psychiatric and medical evaluation when appropriate, is important since studies show that psychiatric disorders are the cause for a large percentage of students who fail to complete high school in the United States. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) 36 Parental Authority Questionnaire-Adapted Student Version 36 Parental Authority Questionnaire-Adapted Parent Version 36 Statistical Analysis 37 Chapter 3: Results 38 Research Question 1 38 Research Question 2 38 Research Question 3 43 Research Question 4 46 Chapter 4: Discussion 49 The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP) and thus be targeted in treatment. Additionally, a provider may administer the School Refusal Assessment Scale- Revised, a self- and parent-report measure that can help identify school avoidance and what might be driving this behavior. Furthermore, diagnosed internalising disorders tend to be more common with negatively reinforced school refusers, separation anxiety disorders are generally more common for attention based school refusal and oppositional defiant and conduct disorder are generally more common for school refusing based on tangible reinforcement (Kearney, 2002). The SRAS-R consists of a child and parent questionnaire with the wording on items altered slightly for each target audience. The School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R), developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman, is a psychological assessment tool designed to evaluate school refusal disorder symptoms in children and identify their reasons for avoiding school. Versions are available for children and parents, who complete their respective scales separately (see Related resources). Some children feel badly at school, some have trouble with other people, some just want to be with their family, and others like to do things that are more fun outside of school. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (C) Children sometimes have different reasons for not going to school. 1. Measuring the Function of School Refusal Behavior: The School Refusal Assessment Scale. It also allows a clinician to examine differences between respondents and use this information in designing and targeting treatment. %PDF-1.4 When our daughter refused to go to primary school our main… Categories three and four represent refusal for positive reinforcement. Repeated school refusal can negatively impact a young persons’ learning and development. A mean score is calculated for each function and are ranked from highest to lowest. Separate child and parent versions were developed, and items are rated on a 7 -point Likert -type scale from never (0) to always (6). School refusal behavior refers to child-motivated refusal to attend school and/or difficulty attending classes for an entire day (Kearney & Silverman, 1996). Kearney, C. (2002). <> R�~���QQ=�3B�s]����EH�ȌP��\�x�戇�z�,�?�%�a���)ċݯ�0�)�CL�/�]����W��GY Oorspronkelijke versie Kearney & Silverman (1993) Huidige versie Heyne, Vreeke & Maric (2008) Doel Deze vragenlijst meet de relatieve kracht van vier gehypothetiseerde functies van schoolweigering en spijbelen. School refusal occurs when a student will not go to school or frequently experiences severe distress related to school attendance. Item means for each functional The condition that scores the highest is interpreted as the primary maintaining function of school refusal however the scores on the other conditions are also taken into account when developing a treatment plan. stream Some young people may feel worried and not want to attend school occasionally, but for some, the difficulties around attending school can persevere and result in them repeatedly refusing to attend school. The following scales were considered specific measures to assess school refusal behavior: the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C, Kearney, 2002a; SRAS, Kearney & Silverman, 1993), the Feelings of School Avoidance (FSA, Watanabe & Koishi, 2000), the School Avoidance Scale (SAS, Fujigaki, 1996) and the School Refusal Personality Scale (SRPE, Honjo et al., … 5 0 obj One method for quickly assessing the role of these functions is the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised. Following x��}Y���qD�K�W ��c��ݶdy��6�>|H� ����z0���j`tX�����8�*�����6a�9_t�qeDdd�W��·[����Ǜ�����������Ԓ�����?���?���7���z�=���?�|�C������Ǜ�b�a������ S�SX�y�[�7�`rw������|u�6�6G[��_����5}� ?��� �7>��e)Wm����*��` Access the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised (SRAS-R) and compute your score. The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial invariance and latent means differences of the Spanish version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C) in a sample of 1,078 students (50.8% boys) aged 8-11 years ( M = 9.63, SD = 1.12). In cases of sudden onset, refusal often begins after a period of legitimate absence. Mean correlations for each function subscale on the parental questionnaire ranged from .61- .78 and from .56- .78 on the child version. Gebruik Angst. This allows scores to be combined from each respondent to create a more complete picture of school refusing. School refusal can have serious consequences. It is important to identify problems early and provide appropriate interventions to prevent further difficulties. The onset of school refusal can be sudden or gradual. More than ¼ of all youth will engage in some degree of school refusal during their schooling years, ranging from complaints and threats to avoid school, to missing school for months or even years at a time. How often does your child have bad feelings about going to school because he/she is afraid of something re-lated to school (for example, … Please only do so at your own discretion and like with all Psychological tools, please use with caution as many methods of assessment have their flaws. If two functions are within .25 of one another they are ranked as equal. There is still limited support for the 4-factor model inherent to the SRAS and its revision (SRAS-R). To start, ask for daily feedback from the school, talk with the teacher or counselor about their observations and look for patterns of absences. This will have consequences for future employment and create a need for social security benefits. Cluster analysis revealed four school refusal behaviour profiles: Non-School refusal, School Refusal by Positive Reinforcement, School Refusal by Negative Reinforcement, and School Refusal by Mixed Reinforcement. The SRAS was revised to improve psychometric properties, increase score range and to modify the functional model (Kearney, 2002). The SRAS-R also shows good concurrent validity with the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children for the negative reinforcement functions. School refusal will have a negative affect on academic and social development and can lead to a student completely dropping out of school. The School Refusal Assessment Scale (SRAS) was developed to identify four factors that might maintain a youth’s school attendance problem (SAP), and thus be targeted for treatment. Nevertheless, the SRAS-R is useful for understanding the function of school refusal, help the design of treatment interventions and to see any changes in function over the course of treatment. �t�'�֓|�vٍ�8DpU�9�e�ʸL�]���Mp�d 7�D�H.�'�D�R d��� GUi_��� �Q@Z�a='����H��B�T�X5 x"���@��C�v� �#��V���G�GD��~\��I#����A,�|-,���Y�G�)rb�R�'�h�o�gAT !��ȵ �J%�ZEn�rXf=���AR*��щ� School Refusal Assessment Scale - Revised, Developed by Christopher Kearney and Wendy Silverman. However, comparisons between other measures of internalising and externalising symptoms and the SRAS have shown nonsignificant associations although they were in the direction expected. School refusal often is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. %�쏢 Following School refusal peaks at several points of development, including with entry into Kindergarten, between ages 7-9, and again with entry into Middle or High School. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22(1), 85-96. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp2201_9, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5). Factor analysis has identified three main constructs of the scale which include a combination of the first two negative reinforcement functions, attention seeking and tangible reinforcement. The scale was created to overcome shortcomings from previous classification systems including an over reliance on clinical judgement rather than empirical evidence leading to a lack of rater reliability, issues with validity and lack of utility in treatment (Kearney & Silverman, 1993). The results reveale … All items on the parent and child questionnaire had significant test-retest reliability over a 7 to 14-day period. The SRAS-R is designed to measure the relative strength of the four functional conditions listed above and is typically given to the child (if appropriate) and to both parents. Abstract. School Refusal Assessment Scale (Table 6, online)23 includes a child, parent, and teacher form and examines school refusal in correlation to negative and positive rein-forcers. J�HC,5��,lp�$Ϋ4��DN���/)��xF����*�,��l�dO��v��e����}�0aW��\ق �r�EY��@ �f� cg=<6���i�Q�`��Ks��2"����&���G �n@�m �8���1��,�"�)����"Z���.��l���p�VDcp0g��I�:,ٶ�lK������.s;�+�0���.N���'�� � yk:p��(�^��5Tyׁ�.��{ a���,.��+���D���E*�'17 H�%�ND��>���}��y3��¾�d��˝����Ӳ�'� �z�1�ƚ��*`� �l�]Jgz����\�'C,�]�X2�^tX�wFɐ�.m�:]�A�h7�g�#|ٖ���a�Y1�jNpi�|�R�4b3s�,ʌG�ޡ��`a4�Ùl�r�JX_�1�E ��$A��Ө������R=��ـѧR=������L� 7'�C�b մ��{��KwV�0��̲�t2+��n|dJ��l�aY������DY�l�d6�06'774;��uY�i���:kvO�3W�x�0�l=��ʒ��-O ���>Q�]*N���O��u��|�xc>���yGf�̮�zTuӑ'����U2��Ѳ��Y�.�N�Q@ ��3�6QT��a Respondents are asked to answer e… The SRAS-R is a 24-item measure with six items devoted to each function. 18,19 This scale poses 24 questions, the answers to which measure the relative strength of each of the 4 functions. Effects of school refusal. 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