Andrade Júnior, Aderson Soares de Whereas, under high temperature regime, cowpea growth was vigorous hence flowered and formed yield. Cowpea is a warm-season legume crop, mostly grown in humid tropical regions. Green cowpea seeds are boiled as a fresh vegetable, or may be canned or frozen. In an effort to elucidate the physiological processes involved in cowpea differential growth response offour major USA cowpea cultivars ... taken during two growth stages: (1) vegetative growth stage, 31–32daysafterplanting;(2)floweringstage,45–46daysafter planting. If harvesting while green, pick the pods when they are very young. Folegatti, Marcos Vinícius 1983. Drought lowers the growth rate and development, ultimately reducing yield, although cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops. Elston, J. B. yuanmingense. "crossMark": true, Robertson, M.J. Dennett, M. D. growth stages..... 4. Cowpeas are the most productive heat adapted legume used agronomically in the U.S. (275). Soronko) incubated in growth chambers. "subject": true, Many farm operations rely on a clear understanding of the stage of crop development. cowpea, and at later stages, the nitrogen fixation inhibitory effect of N 2.5 mM and N 5 mMis decreased. Vegetative Growth Stages Cowpea is a short-day, warm-weather crop. Render date: 2021-01-17T12:09:33.005Z Ntare, B. R. Sinclair, T.R. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1979, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-mhpm4 Muchow, R.C. Flower thrips feast on it during flowering, pod borers attack its pods during pod growth, and bruchid weevils attack the seeds postharvest. A. craccivora caused pod shrivelling at the young and mid‐fill pod stages, on which the aphid was more fecund. Cowpea varieties have diverse growth habits. Ludlow, M.M. Cowpea is eaten by deer as forage, and is commonly used in food plots for deer. Elstonff, J. This data will be updated every 24 hours. 2], R2 • 50–100% of flowers are open (full bloom), R3 • One pod at maximum length (early pod set), R4 • 50% of pods at maximum length (mid pod set), R5 • One pod with fully developed seeds (early seed fill), R6 • 50% of pods with fully developed seeds [Fig. for this article. Ethnobotany: Cowpea has been a … "peerReview": true, The stems of cowpea are striate, smooth or slightly hairy. "comments": true, The cowpea plant is attacked by pests during every stage of its life cycle. Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha. "newCiteModal": false, 3.2 Cowpea growth stages. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021. 1993. If growing on a vine, they will need some support like a pole or fence during their growth. "relatedCommentaries": true, Green, Christopher F. Cowpea is considered more tolerant to drought than soybeans and better adapted to sandy soils. Vegetative growth was more sensitive to water stress than flowering stage. "languageSwitch": true, Monteith, J. L. Its root is a taproot which is quite strong and with many spreading lateral roots in surface soil. } and Walp.) Langham (South Dakota State University, Figure 1 - nth trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node (n+2), Figure 2 - One open flower on the plant (early bloom), Figure 3 - 50% of pods with fully developed seeds. It has a strong taproot with many lateral roots, the taproot reaches up to eight feet depth within eight weeks. Generally, field pests that cause significant losses in cowpea include the stem maggots ( Ophiomyia spp., Diptera: Agromyzidae), foliage beetles ( Ootheca spp., Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), aphids ( A . "metricsAbstractViews": false, Keatinge, J. D. H. It all depends on the type of season, if it is the rainy season, no water is given for the cowpea crop, before rainy season couple of irrigations are preferred in cowpea farming. Leach, G.J. Cowpea is an annual herb which has a growth form that varies; it can be bushy, trailing, erect or climbing. Some are short, upright bush types. The pattern of leaf growth and death was followed in stands of cowpea grown in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria. The following conditions for … Nitrogen. Cowpea crop needs an adequate rainfall during the flowering/podding stage. Flower, D.J. Temperature affected this pattern. Base temperatures for leaf appearance and leaf expansion were 16 and 20 °C respectively. 4. Individual leaves died while pods at the same node were filling. and 2001. Leaf area - Volume 93 Issue 2 - E. J. Littleton, M. D. Dennett, J. Elston, J. L. Monteith Early-maturing cultivars are sown in late April to early May, with the harvest at the end of June or early July, before rice is transplanted. 1984. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Drought occurring at the reproductive stage is the most critical phase affecting cowpea production. Immature snapped pods are used in the same way as snapbeans, often being mixed with other foods. Query parameters: { Littleton, E. J. "hasAccess": "0", and Total loading time: 0.306 The growth and development of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) under tropical field conditions: 1. and Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and lablab (Lablab purpureus) are fast growing, annual, summer forage legumes.They are excellent quality crops for fattening both sheep and cattle, and are also regarded as good feed for milking cows. The pattern of leaf growth and death was followed in stands of cowpea grown in the field at Ibadan, Nigeria. The mean rate of expansion of individual leaves increased with temperature proportionately more than the duration decreased, hence final leaf size increased with temperature. View all Google Scholar citations When determining the growth stage of your crop, consider that a growth stage begins when 50% or more of the plants are in or beyond that stage. Chauhan, Y.S. It remains unclear whether drought priming at the early growth stage can be employed to alleviate drought stress during the post-anthesis drought period and improve water productivity (WP) in cowpea. "figures": false, Growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments. "shouldUseHypothesis": true, 1987. Cowpea can be used at all stages of growth as a vegetable crop. 4 Concentration of various mineral element in cowpeas at different sampling period...;--.*.. Leaf area index increased quicker and leaf death started sooner during warm seasons. Low temperature was found to be more limiting to cowpea growth, development and productivity compared with water stress. cowpea, which can be harvested with conventional grain combines. Stress due to moisture can cause Flower and pod abscission and also serves as a growth-restricting mechanism. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. 1996. and Othieno, C. O. "isUnsiloEnabled": true 1981. Harvesting: Cowpea pods can get up to 6 to 10 inches in length and look similar to green beans. In Africa, cowpea is grown as … Published online by Cambridge University Press:  3], R7 • One pod at mature color (physiological maturity), RH • 80% of pods at mature color (harvest maturity), H.F. Schwartz (Colorado State University) and M.A.C. Gregson, Keith Parasitic weeds—Striga and Alectra—choke the plants growth at all stages and nematodes prevent the roots from absorbing nutrients and water from the soil. Sivakumar, M. V. K. and }. VE – seedling emergence VC – cotyledons visible at node 1; unifoliate leaves unfolded at the next node V1 – the first trifoliate leaf has unfolded from the next node 1979. Initial stages of growth, one weeding more than enough to control the weed in cowpea farming. Squire, G. R. 2002. International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, PMB 5320, Ibadan, Nigeria, Department of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 2AS, Department of Physiology and Environmental Studies, University of Nottingham, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600037977. They thrive in hot, moist zones where corn flourishes, but require more heat for optimum growth (263). Growth stages of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses. Monteith, J. L. Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. Cardoso, Milton José Temperature affected this pattern. The stages can overlap. growth was stunted; cowpea failed to flower and form yield. Cowpea performed better under rainfed relative to irrigated conditions with respect to yield formation. Littleton, E. J. "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, Obaga, S. M. O. Aphids extract juice from its leaves and stems while the crop is still a seedling and also spread the cowpea mosaic virus. The rate of leaf appearance increased with temperature and the duration of expansion of individual leaves decreased so that a constant number of leaves were expanding at one time. "metrics": true, and and A total of 58 cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. 6 Phosphorus concentrat ion in different parts Depending on varieties, they can be bushy, trailing, or vines. Varlett Grancher , C. & Bonhomme , R. ( 1974 ). In rain-fed Southeast Asia, cowpea is usually grown after rice when soil moisture is limited. Lawn, R.J. 1], R1 • One open flower on the plant (early bloom) [Fig. Sanetra, C. Height and vegetative growth stages for COM and IAC were taken weekly starting 2 July 2014 until 13 Aug. 2014. Annals of Applied Biology 90 , 277 – 291 . Ranganathan, R. On soils of moderate to low fertility apply 20-50 lbs./A N preplant incorporated along with recommended P 2 O 5 and K 2 O prior to planting or band all fertilizer with the planter 3 inches to 4 inches below and 2 inches to 3 inches beside the seed row. Soil Requirements for Growing Cowpeas: Roberts, J. M. In the second experiment, conditions of100, 75, 50and 25%light intensities of the natural light were set up in a glasshouse to study their effect on N. 2. fixation and growth of cowpea inoculated with . Field studies were conducted to determine cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Most cowpea crops are rain fed and although it is drought tolerant, cowpea farmers in the dry savanna areas of sub-Saharan Africa obtain low yields, estimated at about 350 kg per hectare. The reproductive (R) stages begin at flowering and include pod development, seed development, and plant maturation. 27 March 2009. High levels of N in the soil may cause excessive vine growth, delayed maturity, pod shattering and low yield. Foale, M.A. Growth stages of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses. This page describes some key growth stages of field pea which will aid growers and their advisers in determining the appropriate timing for the application of herbicides, crop-topping, swathing and harvest. Reproductive Growth Stages R1 • One open flower on the plant (early bloom) [Fig. Silim, S.N. Dennett, M. D. Nitrogen fixation research: a key to world food? Some varieties of cowpea are used specifically for wildlife purposes (Ball et al., 2007). "isLogged": "0", Environmental and genetic modification of leaf number in maize, sorghum and Hungarian millet, International Institute Op Tropical Agriculture, International Institute Or Tropical Agriculture, International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture, The growth and development of cowpeas under tropical field conditions, Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, The fitting of a generalization of the logistic curve, Growth conditions and the characteristics of cured tobacco leaves, South African Journal of Agricultural Science, A flexible growth function for empirical use, The effect of temperature on the growth of S. 170 tall fescue (, Reprise d'activitè des premières feuilles de, Crop Protection Agents, Their Biological Evaluation, Growth, reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments, Mededelingen van de Landbruwhogeschool te Wageningen, Extension growth of grass tillers in the field, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, Photosynthesis and expansion of leaves of soybean grown in two environments. In a crop rotation program, they can significantly improve soil nitrogen levels by nitrogen fixation or by incorporation in soil as a green manure crop. VC • Two cotyledons & primary leaves at nodes 1 & 2, V1 • 1st trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 3, V2 • 2nd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 4, V3 • 3rd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 5, V4 • 4th trifoliolate unfolded at node 6 + branching, Vn • nth trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node (n+2) [Fig. 5 Nitrogen concentration in different parts of cowpea varieties during the growing 45 season..... 4. Feature Flags: { and Cowpeas cannot tolerate moisture stress which causes improper growth of pods. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. The tender green leaves are an important food source in Africa and are prepared as a pot herb, like spinach. In this experiment, short-term (7-d exposure) elevated temperatures significantly (P < 0.05) affected all three growth stages of cowpea (cv. Cowpea growth response to short-term elevated temperatures. Author(s) : Nain, P. S.; Narayan Rishi; Bishnoi, S. S. Author Affiliation : Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125 004, India Several insect pests attack all growth stages of cowpea, but their economic importance is highly dependent on the environment [4, 5]. 2] R2 • 50–100% of flowers are open (full bloom) R3 • One pod at maximum length (early pod set) Bastos, Edson Alves If you should have access and can't see this content please, The effect of temperature change on the expansion of individual leaves of, Diurnal changes in acetylene reduction in field grown cowpeas and soybeans, Expansion of leaf area per plant in field bean (, The effect of temperature on the growth of individual leaves of, The effect of temperature on the relative leaf growth rate of crops of, The water relations of the field bean crop, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, Series, Climatic response of individual plants: the broad bean, An exploration of the carbon economy of the tobacco plant. In the context of varieties used for the present study, vegetative growth was the most sensitive stage to water stress. Cowpea growth in height was linear (R 2 = .96) from about 9 cm on 2 July and reaching 81 cm for IAC and 77 cm for COM on 13 Aug "openAccess": "0", Faria, Rogério Teixeira de A variety of birds, including wild turkey, eat the seeds and the plant can be used by quail as cover. Many cowpea cultivars have a vining growth habit, but modern plant breeding has also led to more upright, bush-type cultivars. genotypes were used for drought tolerance evaluation at germination stage being 29 from Iberian Peninsula, 26 originally collected from 17 different worldwide countries and three used as reference.In a previous study, the majority of the cowpea genotypes were already characterized using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) through the … Cooper, P. J. M. Pods can be harvested when they’re young, as well as when they’ve dried. Summary Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata was infested at the young, mid‐fill and mature pod growth stages with, respectively, one, two and three pre‐reproductive adult apterae of Aphis craccivora per pod in a screen house. Water Supply for Cowpea Production. Feature Flags last update: Sun Jan 17 2021 12:02:40 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Plants are viny or semi-viny (indeterminate), and produce many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny. "clr": true, "lang": "en" And plant maturation has been a … cowpea is considered more tolerant to drought than soybeans and better adapted sandy. Regime, cowpea growth, development and productivity compared with water stress fence during their growth a strong taproot many... To irrigated conditions with respect to yield formation on a clear understanding of stage! Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full views... 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Bruchid weevils attack the seeds and the plant ( early bloom ) [....