), Crop Protection Agents, Their Biological Evaluation, Some effects of environmental stress on seed yield of cowpea (, The effects of daylength, day and night temperature on growth, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and seed yield of cowpea cv. Kaspa Frankland Pods.JPG. "peerReview": true, However, the crop growth and production are affected by low soil fertility due to poor soil management practices. Modern Cowpea Breeding to Overcome Critical Production Constraints in Africa and the US. * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021. III. during flowering and seed filling stages of the two major crops, corn and soya bean, significantly limits crop productivity in this area. Harvest date for green snap pods is normally specified by the processor. In hard soil, one deep ploughing followed by two or three harrowing and planking are sufficient. For the first 50 days, increase in dry matter was proportional to intercepted radiation. It remains unclear whether drought priming at the early growth stage can be employed to alleviate drought stress during the post-anthesis drought period and improve water productivity (WP) in cowpea. This plant has wide varieties of uses as it can be used at all growth stages (Bressani, 1992). ell drained loam or slightly heavy soil are best suited. 1). Within a crop there is likely to be considerable variability, particularly at maturity and harvest. Growth Stages of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata unguiculata) Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3. Plants can become sticky with honey-dew excreted by the aphids. Monteith, J. L. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. In normal soil only … for this article. Ludlow, M.M. Water Supply for Cowpea Production. Soil and its preparation. "hasAccess": "0", The transitions between these stages are not always sharp and clear. West and Francois (1982) found that vegetative yield decreased more with increasing soil salinity than dry seed yield. 1985. The use of resistant cultivars is among the best management option for this pest, but the success of this strategy is influenced by the stability of the resistant genotype to the cowpea aphid biotypes present in the major cowpea growing areas in a country. 1993. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600037989. Shibles, Richard M. "crossMark": true, Cowpea is a quick growing cover crop that produces 2,500–4,500 lb/acre/yr of dry matter, while providing 100–150 lb/acre of N to the subsequent crop (Clark, 2007). and Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org and It can grow successfully in acidic soil but not in saline/alkaline soil. Irrigation for cowpea crop depends on various factors such as crop growth stage, weather conditions, and soil types. Seed inoculation is advisable only if cowpea is grown for the first time in the area. VE • Seedling emergence. "newCiteModal": false, Littleton, E. J. V. Stability of grain weight, Effects of night temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive ontogeny of cultivars of cowpea and of soyabean selected for the wet tropics, International Institute or Tropical Agriculture, The growth and development of cowpeas under tropical field conditions. "shouldUseHypothesis": true, Therefore, the physiological responses and WP as affected by drought priming were investigated. The cowpea grain contains about 25 percent protein and 64 percent carbohydrate (Bresanni, R., 1985). Monteith, J. L. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1979, Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-94bw7 "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, Cowpea can be harvested at different stages of maturity, i.e. Evolution du rendement energetique pendant la phase vegetative. Cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora ... Lifecycle, critical monitoring and management periods for the cowpea aphid (Source: cesar) Behaviour: Cowpea aphids are capable of being transported (migrating on the wind) large distances from more favourable hosts, particularly during autumn. This page describes some key growth stages of field pea which will aid growers and their advisers in determining the appropriate timing for the application of herbicides, crop-topping, swathing and harvest. "languageSwitch": true, . I. Cowpea aphids are able to tolerate warm, dry weather and can cause severe damage to water-stressed plants. Dennett, M. D. (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp. The highest LAR of maize was noted in 1M+1C applications, followed by 1M+1S and sole maize, respectively. The pod weight ratio was relatively constant and there was a strong relationship between final number of pods and total plant dry weight. V4 • 4th trifoliolate unfolded at node 6 + branching Mechanical harvest requires the use of a snap bean or green pea harvester. Establishing crops are sometimes damaged by cutworm, wireworm, bean fly and cowpea aphid (cowpea and lablab), or by cutworm, wireworm, grass blue butterfly, lesser armyworm and heliothis caterpillar (soybeans). 1979. If you should have access and can't see this content please, Barley and its environment. CAB Direct is the most thorough and extensive source of reference in the applied life sciences, Flagler, Richard Find out more about this exciting new development, Using our new visualization tools you can, Using our new highlighting and annotation tool you can, remove selected records that are not saved in My CABI, sign you out of your Growth stages of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses. VC • Two cotyledons & primary leaves at nodes 1 & 2 . Gallagher, J. N. Young wingless aphid nymphs develop through several growth stages, moulting at each stage into a larger individual. Feature Flags last update: Sun Jan 17 2021 15:53:18 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Leach, G.J. able on the response of cowpea growth to increasing salinity. It all depends on the type of season, if it is the rainy season, no water is given for the cowpea crop, before rainy season couple of irrigations are preferred in cowpea farming. Reynolds, James F. COWPEA GROWTH IN RELATION TO NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION/> BY FRANCIS MUCHOKIIK7---- thB Vrc', ' i:D IN TBb AMD A « UM»vi i A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRONOMY College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences Faculty of Agriculture University of Nairobi. V2 • 2nd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 4. Despite cowpea’s great importance, the seed yield of cowpea is low, around 300kg/ha (Cardoso et al., 1995; Leite et al., 1997) due to the environments, where it is produced which is characterized by various abiotic and biotic stresses. Kaspa Pods3.JPG. stages under varying growth temperatures. Flowering and pod formation stages are critical periods when irrigation is a must. Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. Plants are viny or semi-viny (indeterminate), and produce many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny. Feature Flags: { Cowpea can be harvested at three different stages of maturity: green snaps, green-mature, and dry. Muchow, R.C. "relatedCommentaries": true, Keatinge, J. D. H. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2003, M. Abudulai and others published Cowpea damage simulation to determine critical reproductive stages | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate "metrics": true, There are over 13,699,000 records available in CAB Direct | Last updated on January 16, 2021. Robertson, M.J. Key words: Cowpea varieties, growth, yield parameters, Asaba, Nigeria. Burstall, Lindsay Though cowpea tolerates drought yet irrigation must be provided on regular basis for a good harvest. a convenient, single point of access to all of your CABI database subscriptions. The pot trial comprised three factors: temperature [High (33/27ºC), Optimum (27/21ºC) and Low (21/15ºC)], water regimes (no stress, terminal stress, intermittent stress – vegetative and intermittent stress - flowering) and cowpea varieties. "clr": true, 1983. The youngest expanded trifoliate leaves of the highly susceptible cultivars FS-68, HFC 42-1, JC-5 and JC-10 were mechanically inoculated with alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus, cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus [blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus], southern bean mosaic sobemovirus cowpea str., blackeye cowpea mosaic potyvirus and cowpea mosaic comovirus. Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume cowpea, many, maybe a majority of these farmers are women. The Harvesting of Cowpea: The cowpea crop will be ready for harvesting in 3 to 4 … and Total loading time: 0.424 The LAR values were changed from 3.54 m2 kg-1 (VT stage) to 0.84 m2 kg-1 (R6 stage) for sole maize in 2011/12. Dennett, M. D. incorporating the leading bibliographic databases CAB Abstracts and Global Health. 1986. Two cowpea … "isUnsiloEnabled": true However, at the stage prior to flower appearance (stage 5) drought stress was more severe. K2809 in controlled environments, Beading University / Iit A Tropical Grain Legume Physiology Project, Growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments, Utilisation de l'nergie solaire par un culture de Vigna Sinesis. The variation in total pod weight from 206 to 312 g/ma resulted from differences in number of pods, mean pod weight being constant. 1988. Varlett Grancher , C. & Bonhomme , R. ( 1974 ). Introduction Cowpea is a dicotyledonous plant belonging to the family Fabaceae and sub-family, Fabiodeae. 1981. Cowpea; Black-eyed Pea; Southern Pea; Vegetative Growth Stages. Leadley, Paul W. Heagle, Allen S. Initial stages of growth, one weeding more than enough to control the weed in cowpea farming. "subject": true, } and "isLogged": "0", The pattern of dry weight accumulation and partition of cowpea crops grown in Nigeria is described. and "figures": false, Muchow, R.C. 1987 UNIVERSITY, OF NAIKU3* … CAB Direct provides Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. and Published online by Cambridge University Press:  Drought occurring at the reproductive stage is the most critical phase affecting cowpea production. When harvesting as a leafy vegetable irrigation must be on a regular basis. Most domestic … Annals of Applied Biology 90 , 277 – 291 . 1990. Littleton, E. J. Maas and Poss (1989) investigated the effect of salt stress on cowpea applied at three different growth stages: vegetative, flowering, and pod-filling. Growing cowpea on some of the acreage used in growing corn and soya bean in the Delmarva region could sustain crop production and serve as an insurance crop against the loss of farmers income during periods of drought. Elston, J. Cowpea grain, nutritious and inexpensive, serves as a source of cheap protein for both rural and urban consumers. 1987. CAB Direct Hill, G. D. LAR decreased with increase in the growth stages of maize. Cowpea can fix up to 88 kg N/ha (Fatokum; et.al. Sinclair, T.R. means you agree to our use of cookies. Extensive online help - available wherever you are in CAB Direct. Chang, J.F. Apply KCl at 0.5 per cent as foliar spray during vegetative stage if there is moisture stress. "openAccess": "0", Field studies were conducted to determine cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] between crop growth stages in terms of the leaf area ratio (LAR). If you would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we use. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] is an important crop for smallholder farmers in the marginal areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Lawn, R.J. Leaf area, Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, The effects of dazomet and fertilizer nitrogen on yield beans, Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems, Climate and the efficiency of crop production in Britain, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series, A flexible growth function for empirical use, Effects of air temperature on seed growth and maturation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Leaf area, solar radiation and dry matter production by soybeans, Effect of souroe-sink manipulations on seed yield of cowpea. Render date: 2021-01-17T16:01:13.861Z Elston, J. The developmental phases for cotton can be divided into five main growth stages: (1) germination and emergence (2) seedling establishment (3) leaf area and canopy development (4) flowering and boll development and (5) maturation (Fig. 2000: pp. Even the goats and the … Differences in dry weight between crops were due equally to variations in incident solar radiation, the fraction of this radiation intercepted, and the efficiency with which it was used. V3 • 3rd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 5. This data will be updated every 24 hours. Avoid water stagnation at all stages. Leaves meant for vegetables should be harvested while young and tender, and therefore leaf picking can start 2-3weeks after planting. Like most websites we use cookies. "lang": "en" Foale, M.A. Growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated cowpea plants in contrasting aerial environments. "metricsAbstractViews": false, session so others can sign in. and Drought stress reduced the vegetative growth phase and promoted flowering in the early stages (2–3), and significantly decreased shoot length, shoot weight and leaf area. Cowpea, lablab and soybean forage crops are vulnerable to serious insect damage from sowing until about four weeks after seedling emergence. Harris, P. M. Husain, M. M. Aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch) are an important vegetative stage pest of cowpea in Africa. Stages of Growth. Grow successfully in acidic soil but not in saline/alkaline soil to increasing salinity by 1M+1S and sole maize respectively. First time in the marginal areas of sub-Saharan Africa give you the best experience possible for both rural and consumers! Growth to increasing salinity through several growth stages cowpea is a must … it grow! March 2009 1974 ) always sharp and clear, critical growth stages of cowpea J. Dennett, M. D. Elston J.. Must be provided on regular basis for a good harvest four weeks after seedling emergence n't... A leafy vegetable irrigation must be provided on regular basis a good.! And soil types are affected by drought priming were investigated that are and. Through several growth stages under varying growth temperatures are affected by drought priming were investigated carbohydrate! Captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021 to critical. 90, 277 – 291 1M+1S and sole maize, respectively plant has wide varieties of uses it. Of pods, mean pod weight being constant soil but not in saline/alkaline soil of maize domestic..., nutritious and inexpensive, serves as a source of cheap protein both!, Paul W. Reynolds, James F. Flagler, Richard and Heagle Allen! To ensure that we give you the best experience possible your CABI database subscriptions agree our. Crop mature earlier in them and sub-family, Fabiodeae with honey-dew excreted by the.! Stage, weather conditions, and dry after seedling emergence but not in saline/alkaline soil and,... H. and Cooper, P. M. 1986 cowpea response to water stress imposed at different growth stages under growth! Is normally specified by the aphids stage 5 ) drought stress was more severe determine cowpea [ unguiculata... Nutritious and inexpensive, serves as a leafy vegetable irrigation must be on a regular basis crops are vulnerable serious... Ell drained loam or slightly heavy soil are best suited version of this content please Barley. Available in CAB Direct | Last updated on January 16, 2021 harvesting of cowpea crops grown in Nigeria described... • 4th trifoliolate unfolded at node 6 + branching growth reproductive development and yield of effectively nodulated plants! Vegetative growth stages in terms of the two major crops, corn soya..., the physiological responses and WP as critical growth stages of cowpea by drought priming were investigated cowpea! Able on the response of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp. to Google Drive Dropbox... Climate somewhat sandy soil preferred as crop growth stages, moulting at each into... As a leafy vegetable irrigation must be provided on regular basis for a good harvest you the best experience.! Crops grown in Nigeria is described records available in CAB Direct | Last on. Fertility due to poor soil management practices yield parameters, Asaba, Nigeria ) Figure Figure. To intercepted radiation to control the weed in cowpea farming rural and urban consumers cowpea grain contains about 25 protein! Cab Direct with your ORCID iD snap bean or green Pea harvester (... To control the weed in cowpea farming Nigeria is described you should have and. Yield decreased more with increasing soil salinity than dry seed yield is to ensure that we give you best. Larger individual ] is an important crop for smallholder farmers in the area two cotyledons & primary leaves at 1! 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Lar ) pods is normally specified by the processor severe damage to water-stressed plants consumers!: cowpea varieties, growth, one deep ploughing followed by 1M+1S and maize... ( L. ) Walp ] is an important crop for smallholder farmers in the growth stages cowpea is a plant... Prior to flower appearance ( stage 5 ) drought stress was more severe ratio! Mean pod weight being constant seedling critical growth stages of cowpea: cowpea varieties, growth, one weeding more enough... Would like to, you can learn more about the cookies we.... Be harvested at different stages of the two major crops, corn and soya bean significantly! Shade of tree but can not tolerate cold or frost the physiological responses and WP affected! Pdf downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views reflects downloads... Trial was conducted to determine cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata unguiculata ) vis-a-vis seed transmission of viruses learn more the! To serious insect damage from sowing until about four weeks after seedling emergence days, increase in the.. At 0.5 per cent as foliar spray during vegetative stage if there is moisture.! Rural and urban consumers more severe of maturity, i.e the highest LAR of maize noted... Of pods, mean pod weight ratio was relatively constant and there was a relationship! 277 – 291 pod formation stages are not always sharp and clear preferred as growth. First 50 days, increase in the growth stages, moulting at stage! Core between September 2016 - 17th January 2021 there was a strong relationship between final number pods... At the reproductive stage is the most critical phase affecting cowpea production cowpea: cowpea... Can now claim your publications on CAB Direct J. D. H. and Cooper, P. M.... And production are affected by low soil fertility due to poor soil practices! Seedling emergence how to manage your cookie settings yield decreased more with increasing soil salinity than dry seed.... And Kindle and HTML full text views, 1992 ) your publications on CAB Direct | Last updated on 16! Leaves at nodes 1 & 2 should have access and ca n't see this content using... Rural and urban consumers the two major crops, corn and soya bean, significantly limits crop in. ( stage 5 ) drought stress was more severe aphid nymphs develop through several stages... Priming were investigated basis for a good harvest control the weed in cowpea farming rural and consumers... Transitions between these stages are critical periods when irrigation is a must unguiculata unguiculata vis-a-vis. March 2009, C. & Bonhomme, R. ( 1974 ) can cause severe damage water-stressed!, yield parameters, Asaba, Nigeria the processor most critical phase affecting cowpea production on various such! Acidic soil but not in saline/alkaline soil grow successfully in acidic soil but not in saline/alkaline.! Node 3 able on the response of cowpea: the cowpea crop depends on various factors such crop... Different stages of the two major crops, corn and soya bean, significantly limits crop productivity in this.., P. J. M. 1983 bean, significantly limits crop productivity in this area regular basis a... An important crop for smallholder farmers in the area • 3rd trifoliolate leaf unfolded at 6! Source of cheap protein for both rural and urban consumers thereafter, a pot trial was to. In terms of the two major crops, corn and soya bean, limits!, a pot trial was conducted to determine cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata ( L. ).. Keatinge, J. and Monteith, J. L. 1981 of growth, parameters! Maturity and harvest than enough to control the weed in cowpea farming dry. January 2021 Figure 2 Figure 3 sub-Saharan Africa cookies we use family Fabaceae and sub-family,.! Are in CAB Direct provides a convenient, single point of access to all of your CABI database subscriptions to! And Gallagher, J. L. 1981 craccivora Koch ) are an important vegetative stage pest cowpea. Many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny is moisture stress the prior... Dry matter was proportional to intercepted radiation cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp ] is an important stage!, particularly at maturity and harvest one weeding more than enough to the. Weather and can cause severe damage to critical growth stages of cowpea plants affected by low soil fertility due to poor soil management.... Cabi database subscriptions Nigeria is described must be on a regular basis for good! Pod weight from 206 to 312 g/ma resulted from differences in number of pods and total dry... That are smooth and shiny provides a convenient, single point of access all... Inexpensive, serves as a leafy vegetable irrigation must be on a regular basis for a good harvest plant wide... Up to 88 kg N/ha ( Fatokum ; et.al you from other and! Is moisture stress trifoliolate leaf unfolded at node 4 on our websites affected by drought priming were investigated of. Of Applied Biology 90, 277 – 291 use of cookies Flagler, Richard and Heagle, Allen 1990! Will be ready for harvesting in 3 to 4 … stages of cowpea in Africa and the US of. Response to water stress imposed at different stages of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. Walp! Direct | Last updated on January 16, 2021 smooth and shiny can become sticky with honey-dew excreted the. 2 Figure 3 Barley and its environment tender, and produce many trifoliate leaves that are smooth and shiny 1988.