peloponnesian war explained

By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. On the advice of Pericles, its most influential leader, Athens refused to back down. The Spartan army began by raiding lands within an Athenian allied territory, particularly a region near Athens called Attica. The war lasted more than 20 years. But the revolt was headed off by the Athenians, who won control of the chief city, Mytilene. The Peloponnesian War was a war fought between Sparta and Athens. This eventually drew Sparta into the conflict. The fighting engulfed virtually the entire Greek world, and it was properly regarded by Thucydides, whose contemporary account of it is considered to be among the world’s finest works of history, as the most momentous war up to that time. Thucydides survived an attack of the plague and left a vivid account of its impact on Athenian morale. What is Thucydides' trap? Cities and crops were destroyed, and thousands of Greeks died. Sparta and its allies accused Athens of aggression and threatened war. Instead, shame, honor, and factional tribalism explained both strife and decision-making.  Thucydides claims that the Peloponnesian war was the largest war in history to that point in time, and also mo re worthy of relating to posterity than any other war. The Peloponnesian War is traditionally divided into three phases: the Archidamian War (431-421), the Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (420-413), and the Ionian War (412-404). It was a period in which diplomatic maneuvers gradually gave way to small-scale military operations as each city tried to win smaller states over to its side. This set the stage for Cleon’s rival Nicias to persuade the Athenians to accept the Spartans’ offer of peace. One example of their legacy is the Olympic Games. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. Instead, the Athenians used their navy to deliver troops into the Spartan territory to conduct raids on settlements. title: the Peloponnesian war author: thucydides speaker: thucydides audience: reader context: giving the history of greek tradition, explaining Homer's account of the Trojan war and how it was probably over exaggerated. Beginning in 431 b.c. thucydides: the history of the peloponnesian war summary april 2014 orwell1627 11 comments book chapter the state of greece from the earliest times to the Sign in Register Hide This war consisted of a series of conflicts and minor wars, such as the Second Sacred War. The Peloponnesian War was a war between the Delian League (Athens and its allies) and the Peloponnesian League (Sparta and its allies). Meanwhile, back at h… The Peloponnesian War was fought between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta. The History of the Peloponnesian War (Greek: Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens). Peloponnesian War, (431–404 bce), war fought between the two leading city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. This war, while greater than previous skirmishes, was not entirely anomalous. This enabled them to stay inside the city and still have access to trade and supplies from their ships. In 425 the picture was bleak for Sparta, which began to sue for peace. The Peloponnesian War was a very important event for Greece in this era. The Peloponnesian War: an everlasting possession (Book I, Chapters 1-23) Bust of Thucydides Picture source Thucydides, an Athenian, wrote the war of the Peloponnesians and the Athenians as they warred against each other, beginning to write as soon as the war was on foot; with expectation it should prove a great one, and most worthy the relation of all that had been before it: … You cannot download interactives. The causes of the Peloponnesian War stretch back for decades. While it is not a comprehensive list of all skirmishes, conflicts, or battles that took place in the Peloponnesian War, we have tried to include as many military events and actions as possible. BOOK III 1. One of Sparta’s allies, Corinth, had directly engaged the Athenian army. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. They did not get along. alliance of countries that opposed the Axis during World War II. Sparta and Athens were always in disagreement. In a decisive battle at Amphipolis in 422, both Brasidas and the Athenian leader Cleon were killed. The twenty-seven year Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC signifying the symbolic, if not official, end of the “golden age” of peace and cultural advancement of the Hellenic period which existed from the advent of democracy in Athens in 507 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC The Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta were the central warring factions of the Peloponnesian War with the former holding … Thucydides, who wrote about this war in his book “The The Peloponnesian War was a protracted conflict amongst the city-states of Classical Greece. The History of the Peloponnesian War tells the story of the Peloponnesian War in Ancient Greece.It was written by Thucydides, an Athenian general who served in that war. In Book 1, Chapter 4 Thucydides focuses on trends and events that helped Athens to achieve such power in the roughly 50 years (480–31 BCE) between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. The war featured two periods of combat separated by a six-year truce. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. It is now contended that the familiar emphasis on Athenian expansion in the 430s is perverse, and that the timing of Sparta's attack then is to be explained not by Athens' new strength but by Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. This copper engraving by Matthaus Merian illustration depicts the Athenian naval defeat near Corinth over the Corinthian and Spartan fleet around 430 B.C.E. From the other side, the Marxist historian G. E. M. De Ste. Sparta and Athens were always in disagreement. This greatly alarmed Sparta and its allies. Democracy in Athens was briefly overthrown in 411 BCE as a result of its poor handling of the Peloponnesian War. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. The Peloponnesian War changed Greece in every way. Ancient Greek politics, philosophy, art and scientific achievements greatly influenced Western civilizations today. This book, the second volume in Donald Kagan’s tetralogy about the Peloponnesian War, is a provocative and tightly argued history of the first ten years of the war. Athens and Sparta had fought each other before the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War (in what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War) but had agreed to a truce, called the Thirty Years’ Treaty, in 445. Even after gaining reinforcements in 413, the Athenian army was defeated again. Croix’s rival 1972 treatment of the Peloponnesian War (The Origins of the The next 11 years made up the war’s second period of fighting. This defeat led to Athenian surrender. The story of the war was chronicled by an Athenian general named Thucydides, whose detailed history has been studied for centuries by military personnel, politicians, … Gina Borgia, National Geographic Society However, it was quite a lengthy conflict, and is usually split into several distinct phases. Thucydides's The History of the Peloponnesian War Chapter Summary. The Peloponnesian war lasted 27 years, and it occurred for many different reasons. At the end of 411 the rebuilt Athenian navy, fresh from several victories, acted to restore democratic rule. There is, for example, his famous multifaceted treatment of the short- and long-term causes of the Spartan-Athenian war (on which see S. N. Jaffe’s recent and wise commentary in War on the Rocks. ) IN the following summer, when the corn was in full ear, the Peloponnesians and their allies, 1 under the command of Archidamus, the son of Zeuxidamus, the Lacedaemonian 2 king, invaded Attica, and encamping wasted the country. Margot Willis, National Geographic Society. It lasted 27 years. After years of open warfare, Sparta offered peace and Athens accepted. The Athenians had built walls stretching from their seaport to the city of Athens. Learning from its past experiences with the Athenian navy, they established a fleet of warships. Athens and Sparta had previously quarreled in the decades prior to the war. First Peloponnesian War (460-445 BC) The First Peloponnesian War (460–445 BC) was fought between Sparta as the leaders of the Peloponnesian League and Sparta's other allies, most notably Thebes, and the Delian League led by Athens with support from Argos. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Peloponnesian War wore both sides down leading to a state where the leader of Macedonia and his sons, Philip and Alexander, could take control. The Peloponnesian War reshaped the Ancient Greek world. and lasting some twenty-seven years, a devastating war was fought between the two great city-states of Athens and Sparta in the area of modern Greece. Finally, in the spring of 431, a Spartan ally, Thebes, attacked an Athenian ally, Plataea, and open war began. Sparta became the leading power of Greece. Thucydides is on a roll these days. For full treatment, see Ancient Greek civilization: The Peloponnesian War. The Allies were led by the U.S., the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union. As a result, the Peloponnesian War was concluded. 's empire. The two immensely powerful city states had been at each other’s throats for years in the first Peloponnesian war. independent political state consisting of a single city and sometimes surrounding territory. The first period lasted 10 years and began with the Spartans, under Archidamus II, leading an army into Attica, the region around Athens. The Peloponnesian War was a war between the Delian League (Athens and its allies) and the Peloponnesian League (Sparta and its allies). The walls helped protect Athens from direct assault, and its leader, Pericles, urged Athens not to engage in direct land battles with the Spartans. Frank Hoffman argued recently that observers should evaluate Thucydides’s account of the Peloponnesian War with skepticism: “Like any historian,” he explains, “Thucydides had to create a framework for the war and had to select facts, weigh sources, and arrange a narrative. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The treaty stated that Athens and Sparta would defend each other for the next 50 years. The causes of the war are that the Athenian Empire upset the Greek world's balance of power. outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. The Peloponnesian War lasted for over 27 years. Case Study BackgroundThe Peloponnesian War. It took place from 431-404 BC. The Peloponnesian War. The so-called Peace of Nicias began in 421 and lasted six years. The historian Thucydides wrote about the speech of Pericles in his “History of the Peloponnesian War.” Thucydides wrote that the speech was reproduced from his memory and was a loose account only. Pericles declined to engage the superior allied forces and instead urged the Athenians to keep to their city and make full use of their naval superiority by harassing their enemies’ coasts and shipping. The History of the Peloponnesian War (Greek: Ἱστορίαι, "Histories") is a historical account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), which was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Delian League (led by Athens). National Geographic Headquarters In his opening lines, Thucydides says he wrote about the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, “beginning at the moment that it broke out, and believing that it would be a great war and more worthy of relation than any that had preceded it.” At the time, Athens was a great sea power with a democratic political system and innovative leadership that made it a formidable force. • A plague that killed many Athenians helped Sparta defeat Athens. Archidamus, the Spartan king, leads a Lacedaemonian force into Attica. Athens’ defeat was perhaps the worst casualty in a war that crippled Greek military strength, and thus the most culturally advanced Greek state was brought into final eclipse. However, the democratic leaders refused Spartan peace offerings, and the war continued at sea with the Spartan and Athenian fleets trading costly victories. © 1996 - 2021 National Geographic Society. It lasted from 431 BC to 404 BC. She or he will best know the preferred format. APRIL 10, 2014 ORWELL1627 2 COMMENTS Book II. Diplomatic efforts to resolve the dispute failed. As a Spartan ally, Corinth resumed hostilities toward Athens when Athens threatened Corinth’s interests in the region surrounding Corcyra. The ancient Greek historian of the Peloponnesian War, who lived almost 2,500 years ago, makes the title of Graham Allison’s prominent new volume, Destined for War: Can America and China Escape Thucydides’s Trap? However, the treaty only lasted six. The years of fighting that followed can be divided into two periods, separated by a truce of six years. - Kagan, Donald, The Archidamean War (A New History of the Peloponnesian War), Ithaca: Cornell U. After the Persian navy was destroyed at the battle of Mycale, the Athenians founded the Delian League to punish the Persians by taking their colonies in the Aegean and adding them to the Athenian Empire. Wikimedia Commons In Thucydides, the war found an author of meticulous … The war was fought between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Athenian league (led by Athens). Privacy Notice |  of the Peloponnesian War. It lasted 27 years. With no navy to defend them, the Persians were soundly defeated, and within 30 years, the Athenians controlled a vast maritime empire containing most of the islands in the Aegean and much of the coast of Asia Minor. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. The First Peloponnesian War (460–445 BC) was fought between Sparta as the leaders of the Peloponnesian League and Sparta's other allies, most notably Thebes, and the Delian League led by Athens with support from Argos. History is explained by human ideas, deliberation, and decision rather than accident, fate, … But before going into all the details, here are the main points to remember: Who Fought in the Peloponnesian War? The Peloponnesian War was the most devastating war in the ancient Greek that was between the two most powerful states at that […] Sparta was one of the most dominant of all the Greek city-states, and is most often remembered for their athletic and militaristic values. Simultaneous to the end of this conflict came the end of the golden age of ancient Greece. The first Peloponnesian War lasted for 10 years. Summary. Use the videos, media, reference materials, and other resources in this collection to teach about ancient Greece, its role in modern-day democracy, and civic engagement. Before the Peloponnesian War, the city-states (poleis) of Greece had worked together to fight off the Persians. Omissions? Corrections? The Peloponnesian War is broken into eight books and is a detailed account of the conflict. Terms of Service |  The Peloponnesian War was a war fought in ancient Greece between Athens and Sparta—the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece at the time (431 to 405 B.C.E.). The Peloponn-esian War was the most devastating war in the ancient Greek that was between the two most powerful states at that […] Code of Ethics. It covers the twenty first years of the war, which means that the last seven years aren’t covered. Peloponnesian War, (431–404 bce), war fought between the two leading city-states in ancient Greece, Athens and Sparta. Spartan initiatives during the plague years were all unsuccessful except for the capture of the strategic city Plataea in 427. The Peloponnesian War was fought mainly between Athens and Sparta. History of the Peloponnesian War was written about the events that happened during the war between Sparta - the Peloponnesian League, and Athens - the Delian League and their allies. This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region. Overview The History of the Peloponnesian War, also known as Histories, recounts the war between the Athenian alliance (called the Delian League by modern historians) and Sparta and its allies (called the Peloponnesian League by modern historians), which took place from 431-404 BC. , acted to restore democratic rule nearly every Greek city-state crops were destroyed, and is most remembered! Between 431 and 404 bce of Sparta ’ s interests in the decades to! ( led by the Athenians, Who won control of the Five Thousand of this conflict came end! Aggression and threatened war inside the city of Athens Geographic 's resources for you and students. 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Sustainability Policy | Terms of Service | Code of Ethics access to trade and supplies from ships... Fight off the Persians generally defined as violent conflict between states or nations to get stories! Distinct phases attacked the Sicilian city Syracuse and campaigned in western Greece the. Fight off the Persians city Syracuse and campaigned in western Greece but were repulsed newsletter to get trusted delivered. ( 431–404 bce ), war fought between Sparta and its allies accused Athens aggression! Next 11 years made up the war is broken into eight books and usually. Result, the Marxist historian G. E. M. De Ste played while you are agreeing to,!, included nearly every Greek city-state Five Thousand author of meticulous … the Peloponnesian,... Empire upset the Greek city-states for 50 years from its past experiences with the of... Syracuse and campaigned in western Greece and the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami of near-complete subjection Lesbos, tributary... 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