Increase in yield is often obtained when phosphorus is applied as single superphosphate at 40kg P205/ha. It was releases in 2003 for cultivation in the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana. The yield potentials is 2.0 t/ha. In areas or years of high incidence of aphids, single spray of karate (800 ml/ha) or Cymbush applied 20 days after sowing will give effective control. Bradyrhizobium Inoculants Enhance Grain Yields of Soybean and Cowpea in Northern Ghana. In addition, planting in rows makes weeding and insecticides application easier. There are many farmer preferred cowpea varieties that are cultivated in northern Ghana. The potential yields is 1.5 t/ha. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Storage in pods makes control of cowpea weevil more difficult. This study evaluated the symbiotic effectiveness and economic evaluation of Rhizobium inoculants with the objective of recommending the most effective inoculant strain for soybean and cowpea production in Northern Ghana. endstream endobj 180 0 obj <>stream Cowpea (Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp) is a major grain legume in Sub-Sahara Africa. Farmer involvement in the development of cowpea varieties for cultivation is an integral component for crop improvement in Northern Ghana where the bulk of cowpea is produced. Plants become stunted. Apagbaala: this variety has white seed coat with small brown eye. Author information: (1)Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Kumasi, Ghana. Thus, Leaves become dry. Line planting may be done with the aid of garden lines or sighting poles. Infected plants wilt and die. The objective of this study was to assess farmers’ perception about the effect of drought on cowpea production, identify production constraints and determine farmer preferred traits using Participatory Rural Appraisal. Seed producers in the Northern Region have been advised to adopt the out-grower and community seeds production systems whereby one farmer can engage about 10 to 20 farmers to produce large acres of seeds. The following steps may be followed. In this way, farmers will reduce the quantity of insecticides used as well as the cost associated with insecticide use. 9n� ������0�5s�236��))�B%� �2g �N1+�k4Y��3h�����c4JC,ȁ�0zIk�h�ƙʠ��q��Ld�Lk��*��j̮�����!���f�e��p��48̼0d�����/� ���ju�~~���/�ϫ!��R�KfCJ�^&�x- �T$��!�y )�^yIvWd���Z��@"���h�Q5��x�T��9܇(V��p@����#�.���C-�C|�^�3p8RG+��c �����8��K� �~��pj;0�s/����x�8�/�|ҔyŦU����ؤ="�@g{ ����� �O� (P��@~�8���0ue�%���X�Q�Yd/0�g��{��5c����+��|*�k��0J6/j�fxƸ������,%иb�� Ҍ�{��$|b |�vx h�bbd```b``a�K@$S X����� �=D�HcW���"�Adf;�d���� ��G�00m����H&�����@� ��1 h�b```�,��� �� endstream endobj 182 0 obj <>stream There is webbing of flowers pods and leaves and frass deposition on the pods. 1.3 Why Local Cowpea Network and Northern Ghana? The stem:Thedisease affects the base of the stem where cotton-like growth of the pathogen can be seen. The adults appear either as shiny reddish brown, brown or black. Cowpea is an important crop among the farm households of northern Ghana. Vallenga: is a red-seeded that matures in about 70 days. Under good management and favourable weather conditions, yields as high as 1.8 t/ha can be obtained. This variety is not recommended for cultivation in the Sudan savannah zone. 2.) Control: in many cowpea growing areas, spraying Karate (at 800 ml/ha) during the podding period effectively controls these post flowering where there is high incidence of pod bugs, spraying with Perfekthion (dimethroat) or thiodan (endosulphan) is more effective. Thrips : in Northern Ghana, this pest can cause complete crop loss if the crop is not protected with insecticide. By Classfmonline.com Farmers in northern Ghana are now embracing a newly-improved variety of cowpea known as Songotra (IT97K-499-35). Generally, for early maturing types, planting at the beginning of the rains is advised so that the sensitive stages of the crop avoid the peak activity of insect pests. Insect pests are the most important yield reducing factors in cowpea. This variety shows moderate levels of resistance to Striga and bacterial diseases. It is particularly tolerant of drought during vegetative growth. _�^��EG���Q�tT8*�JG�����h�i�i�i�i�i�i�i�i�i�i�i�i�f�f|�g�B~���e�|k�Z��s_3�ܦ)��2�˜`B�>|M�8�.��7�+� V)� Foliage beetle: This beetle can totally defoliate cowpea seedlings in some years. Application of starter dose of nitrogen up to 20 kg/ha on old land (continuously cropped land) where organic matter content may be as 1%. �Ok3���������H?��5�`׺�C�]�a�qN�wT�ш:�g�9��X��c:M�l3Ria;���莒�I��2O|����w%�OE�^ {��Kluv����j�a������/B�. b��ؗS~��t�:A춂uǚ��[����V+}����Tk��*���]�BF[�������q'��LM[�=DYs9"CR��. Prostrate, photosensitive types may be planted towards the end of July. Ideally, planting should be timed in relation to the maturity period of the variety such that the crop is harvest in bright dry weather. Seeds that are not properly dry fail to germinate well and plant stands are reduced. endstream endobj 177 0 obj <>/Metadata 84 0 R/Outlines 107 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/Pages 171 0 R/StructTreeRoot 148 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 178 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 179 0 obj <>stream The cultivar, Marfo Tuya is moderately resistant to this parasite. Weeding should be done by the second week after germination, although this depends on the types of weeds present and how well the land was prepared. 3)      Spread the cowpea grains uniformly on the plastic material. Northern Ghana is the hub of livestock production in Ghana. For large quantities of grain/seed: for large quantities of grain, the heat disinfection technique is strongly recommended. This is because a genetic modification for in-built resistance has been introduced into the crop, thus, farmers would no longer lose between 20 and 80 per cent of their crop yield to Maruca Vitrata (Pod borer) infestation… This WordPress.com site is the cat’s pajamas. :y~���M���m,vk���OF�v?ޘ���λ1�jg��__��#�7yS�˧��� c> � Under severe infestation, there is premature defoliation and death of young seedlings. ��65�ù듼pm�̟G�os��$����.��4$U��_��u���a���?�6L]v��G�n��.��]��k׆S�V���Kp��i����|�k�]��>W,�9�4C�c݄���!���Y��-~�I����{��y���*pq�ſ���g���o�[�����_�o�iU2�Df��spA.�B�'{���!o"s9�A����LA�0G�#F60�BG��p/Y�z!���.p�܅�w�������ݳ�G7�n��9�e�"Gy��M��U�+� Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon. This warranted identification of resistant cowpeas for sustainable production. All recommended varieties are susceptible and appropriate methods of storage (see below) exist to prevent damage by the cowpea weevil. A number of improved varieties recommended for cultivation are resistant to aphids. 192 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[176 29]/Info 175 0 R/Length 91/Prev 1596829/Root 177 0 R/Size 205/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Currently the sheanut tree, from which shea butter is derived, grows in the wild in the Northern, Upper East and West regions. And because the crop can be harvested within two months of sowing, it fills the “hunger gap” for poor families between May and August when other crops, such as maize, are still young in the field. After harvestin, pods should by sun dried immediately, and then threshed. Cowpeas are sensitive to water logging conditions that commonly occur when cultivated on heavy clay soils. Nearly 75% of the population in the region are subsistence farmers who raise sheep and goat as a secondary source of income to crop farming. Is a serious pest of cowpea and can completely destroy the grain within six months. For soils with poor structure, high run-off and low water infiltration, the physical properties can be improved markedly and cowpea yields increased if farmers hoe the land or the land is ploughed. Northern Ghana with more than 20,000 households involved in production. “We have been very much concerned with the infestation of strigga which has been a threat to cowpea production in the major producing region of Northern Ghana. ����������������gF���nn�nn�nn�nn�>>Œ���ZA��VP+�� Leguminous farming serves as an important component of sustainable cropping system in Ghana due to their nitrogen fixing ability and socio-cultural values. It is important to complete weeding by the end of the 6th week then when the crop is establishing ground cover. 1.) 4)      Cover the grains with a translucent plastic material with similar size as the first one. endstream endobj startxref Though cowpeas are grown on a range of soil types, they are best adapted to well-drained sandy loams. 6)      Leave in the sun for at least two hours. It has a small stature and high yields are obtained when grown under high plant densities (200,000 plants/ha). Note: this treatment does not change cooking time, rate of germination or seeding after heat disinfestations avoid re-infestation by storing the cowpea in a clear plastic bag, tightly sealed. Higher yields are however obtained under sole cropping, if early maturing (60-70 days) erect or semi-erect types are grown, for which a number of have been bred. Drying is important to reduce moisture content of grains significantly before storage in orger to avoid seed getting moldy. The bulk of production occurs in the savannah regions of Northern Ghana, although cowpea can be grown in all ecological zones of Ghana. h��W�n�F��}lP�{�HjԸ�%��ƅ�Fbm"4eP`�}ff�2�P�ۗ��G�;;��9\Yf� &3�� �cϤÍ�4�3��0%�C���I[J(\��fZî��l6�7Ŋ�`!�Ǜ��'U�*QCu|���(8�}��ON���|z����}^�ل�_����\|8c�/&�m�|q�o��i]�˧���{l[�y[�eN~��w|��7ˢn�-��,x_��w-sZ�_��u����*��0���u;����,t�{P���v��}Y=�4˫�KS����*��a[�9���鯫�?�?w��_�M�.�R���k2B�L����*��������DS��)�uï�V���(�;��&}W/׫����zRo��z^6�vv�7�������4�L��|��K��\�S��.ן��й$�m��m��m���'=�QV0-� Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. ( Log Out /  "v0�r�|�7�+��]�HZ����"������Y��V�R�W���t���e��3���ۤ��Ij�A{#9?&��_���.%� A field experiment was conducted at Savanna Agricultural Research Institute in 2015 cropping season to examine the inheritance of early maturity among an extra-early maturing landraceSanzi and a medium maturing varietyPadi-Tuya and their progenies. for soybean and cowpea production in Northern Ghana. Although insecticide spray is advised only when the numbers of insects reach the threshold of economic damage, this is not always easy to determine. On the basis of area cultivated, cowpea is the most important food legume in Ghana. Sources of Inputs among Groundnut and Cowpea Farmers in Ghana. Cowpea cultivars usually exhibit specific reproductive response to photoperiod which increases local adaptation but limit their usefulness in other areas. 2)      Spread a black polyethylene sheet over the straw. Farmers who do not spray their crops risk total crops failure. ... Weeds are serious problem in cowpea production. Usually no insecticide sprays are required against aphids, leafhoppers or the foliage beetle. Use equal volume of wood ash and cowpea seed. Field experiments were established in three locations using randomized complete block design with five blocks. c�o������R�� 176 0 obj <> endobj endstream endobj 181 0 obj <>stream • North can develop strong competitive position against imports. Others include Bambara, dawadawa, pigeonpea. ( Log Out /  • Good comparative advantage forNorthern Ghana, as onions are mostly produced under dry-season farming around and along water bodies (dams, dugouts, valleys, rivers). Local prostrate varieties should be planted wider spacing of 80 cm × 40 cm. This study was conducted in the Tolon-Kumbungu district of the Northern Region of Ghana. And because the crop can be harvested within two months of sowing, it fills the “hunger gap” for poor families between May and August when other crops, such as maize, are still young in the field. At this spacing, up to 28 kg of seeds is required per hectre. As a result, use of feed Being indigenous to Africa, a number of plant types that are cultivated in the major growing regions to fit specific roles in the cropping systems. In addition a number of improved types that have not been released are cultivated. Dr Addae said cowpea was a major staple crop in Ghana and all its parts from the leaves, the green pods, green peas and the dry grain were useful and rich in protein for majority of people who lacked the financial resource to buy meat and fish. The disease survives in the soil on crop residues, and may control the disease. Cowpea is warm weather and requires less rainfall than most crops. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Bengpla: a white seeded variety with black eye, matures in 60 days in the Guinea savannah zone, and may be as early as 52 days in the Sudan savannah zone. �s� �c��e�0�\���` ��� Stem rots: The disease affects the base of the stem where cotton-like growth of the pathogen can be seen. The typical symptoms are shrived pods that dry prematurely leading to significant yield losses. Fine sand may be used in place of wood ash. Striga gesnerioides is an important parasitic weed, and it is quite prevalent in the Upper East Region. The grains have a short cooking time compared with other varieties. In Ghana, the project targets smallholder farmers in northern Ghana engaged in crop (Maize and Cowpea) and Livestock (small ruminants) production. c��Ye�` a��� ()���&�RP�vP��8�\Ev����(�-�cug�j It produces good yields in a disease-free environment. ( Log Out /  Soils in Northern Ghana generally are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. It provides a cheap source of plant protein and bridges a hunger gap that is known to exist between the time when most crops are planted and the time when major crops are harvested. 5)      Fold the edges of the two plastic sheets under and secure with stones. Ghana Business News The first place for your business news. It is grown throughout the country although production is concentrated in Northern, Upper East and Upper West Regions. Their feeding causes yellow discoloration of leaf veins and margins, followed by cupping of leaves. җ�4>��v���#��]�sG�t-TRQ��i��oq��FR���N+dRy��)� �+'y3�-�l9���o�����̋�n/_��k,� �5<4s��0X��}�E��̂��,Yxs:?Op? Varieties that bear pods above the canopy, and separated from each other (as in Apagbaala) escape serious damage by this pest. resulting in significant yield loss in the regions of northern Ghana. s r �����fFAFaFAFaFAFaFAFaFAFaFAFeFEFeFEF���S��Tz*�����`�>� Because of synchronous pod maturity and long peduncles that carry the pods above the canopy, this variety usually have less damage form the Maruca pod borer. Cover ash/seed mixture with up to 3 cm of ash. All recommended varieties are susceptible to attack by pod sucking bugs. In most cases spreading types are used in intercropping system whereas erect or semi-erect types are used for sole cropping. 204 0 obj <>stream Control: Most of the improved varieties recommended for cultivation are resistant to these pests, except for thrips. Phosphorus application not only increases yield but nodulation also in cowpea. Under severe infestation, plants do not produce flowers. Marfo-Tuya: This is a 70-day variety and has a white seed coat with brown eye. H��Wko9�>��g�Ƶ�_c !A�,,E�FB��~i(e��f���s�i��������x&��美�w���x�����vD�PB�@J8��|R��b{g_��}�d��Ɵ��yS8+mm��?�J��� ���>:e�?�x�,LC������xqR���{ �=�|;z�� Because the crop requires dry weather for harvesting, the bulk of production is in the dry savannahs. Open flowers may appear distorted and discolored. When planting cowpea twice in a year, the first crop the first crop may be planted in April, and the second crop in late July to mid August. 3.) H�\��j�0����l/�G�i��$�\���pl%54�Q�������.����H3|F�f���~���4��0�S���-��ù�fQٮo�ϯ���4�)r��~��eO��k[�ʛ�)���K7ã)~�.�>��ß�����8~�K��-�zm�pʍ�5���l1�=����O��\�����l5/(�]��MR���e~ֶ~��ڄ����V,;���&�����K� yޒ��y~#����e漘�-f�K�\���%ؑؓ=X�V��W���� Infected plants wilt and die. The ash and seed should be mixed thoroughly and stored in a container. Field experiments were established in three locations using randomized complete block design with five blocks. Weeds damage cowpea by competing for light, water and nutrients. For good plant stand and high yields, seeds must be free of diseases and insects. The bulk of production occurs in the savannah regions of Northern Ghana, although cowpea can be grown in all ecological zones of Ghana. It was released in 1986 after testing with farmers. •Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) is an important food crop with good soil fertility enhancement ability •In northern Ghana, it is the second most important crop after groundnut. ( Log Out /  The sheanut tree. Cowpea should be threshed before storage. On fairly fertile soils cowpeas do not need nitrogen fertilizer. Planting in rows is recommended so that the correct plant density may be established. • Cowpea is an important source of protein for human and animal nutrition in many parts of the semiarid - tropics • Cowpea yields at farmers’ levels in Northern Ghana are low and the yield reducing factors include insect pests, Striga infestations and low adoption of recommended or improved production … Cowpea weevil, larvae and eggs are killed when expose to temperature around 57 oC for one hour. The farmers are typically resource-poor and the animals are managed under the free range systems. This beetle also transmits a viral disease in cowpea. Although the seed coat pigmentation reduces it market value, it is recommended where red seeded types are preferred. A more harmful effect is that the insect transmits the aphid-borne mosaic virus. Cowpea is a mainstay of school lunches in Ghana. For most varieties, this will be between 30 to 35 days after sowing. The cowpea network is chosen as the reference crop for this study because of its socio-economic and socio-cultural significance in the local production, processing and consumption patterns (Langy- Source: mynewsgh.com 2019-05-10 CSIR-SARI woos youth into farming in Northern Ghana with high-yielding cowpea varieties periodically removed they may act as hosts for pests. The use of Dursban (an organophosphate) though effective against pod sucking bugs is discouraged because of higher risks to Man and livestock posed by this insecticide. %PDF-1.5 %���� If a pre-emergence herbicide (e.g. Dr Kusi who stated that the Cowpea germplasm were obtained from the SARI-CSIR and local farmers in the Ashanti Region of Ghana as well as the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, indicated that the northern zone trails was not only conducted at Manga SARI station in the Upper East Region, but also at Silbelle-Tumu of the Upper West Region. Cowpea developed for one region therefore may not perform well in other regions. The parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides, imposes physiological stress on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Being indigenous to Africa, a number of plant types that are cultivated in the major growing regions to fit specific roles in the cropping systems. Aphids: The cowpea aphid is a major pest common in growing areas. Seed rate depend on the plant type and seed size. Enclose this bag of cowpea in a second bag tightly sealed by tying it shut with a strong twine. 1)      Spread straw or dry grass on a level ground. As a guide polyethylene sheet measuring 3m×3m may allow 50kg of seed to be disinfested in one treatment. %%EOF This project is therefore working at introducing the trait that enables the cowpea to withstand Maruca into these commercial varieties. “Our cowpea production in the North is on the decline and our cotton industry is virtually non-existent due largely to the difficulties farmers face in trying to deal with the problem of pests,” they said. Pod sucking bugs: A number of pod bugs are prevalent in cowpea growing areas and usually attack cowpea crops at the same time. Leafhoppers can destroy cowpea during the seedling stage. !�A��>��cO����j��9R0���Bp��)k+��Q�j��_�t� Good field hygiene may control the disease. The results indicated highly significant () genetic variations for the maturity indices, namely, days to first flower initiation (DFFI), days to 50% flowering (DFF), days to first pod maturity (DFPM), days to 90% pod maturity (DNPM), and plant height (P_PLT), s… In these regions, the area of cowpea production extends in a westerly direction from Cameroon through Senegal, lying mainly between 10 °N and 15 °N, covering the dry savannah (northern Guinea and Sudan savannahs) as well as Sahel zones. Regional News of Friday, 10 May 2019. The following points should be noted. For seeds: foe small quantities of seed, storage in wood ash is effective. It was released in 2003 for general cultivation in Northern Ghana. It produces higher yields than most varieties when cultivated in the Sudan savannah zone. Cowpeas are eaten regularly in virtually every household in West Africa. When the disease is transmitted, affected plants show a green vein banding of the leaves. �]㏈�eb��wQ���/E��!�P�I X�����b�#�䀂���I>1I'R�3��'�= Vallenga is moderately resistant to the diseases common in the cowpea growing regions. Ulzen J(1), Abaidoo RC(2), Mensah NE(1), Masso C(3), AbdelGadir AH(4). Dr Atokple the innovation platform would be formed in the communities where cowpea was produced in the three northern regions to upscale production. And cowpea tolerates droughts, which are increasing across sub-Saharan Africa. Cowpea and groundnut are important cash and staple crops in Northern Ghana and their cultivation is dominated by small scale farmers equipped with traditional tools coupled with limited usage of production technologies such as fertilizer, improved seeds and, pest and disease control measures. Larvae feed, on tender parts of the stem, peduncles, flowers and pod. �,̕�� x����u�Mh�"f� ��in���{�W��8 �فa�N���L��1&�enOX�T�E����^^�>�rD�b\���U�'^x-wx�Z��da�*�}����^u��4�8N�>���lH���RY��+6�Z��^y��5�!��OJ��6�r�߳�da�6'[��:}St�8�@��v����R��}�΋�Jy@b~]�M���'^���v�Қ������0�6�Y@f9P�� $��� VU� (�1Ae�j;D�!43X��b C:X It produces stable high yields, with a yield potential of 2.0 t/ha. Spreading types are usually photosensitive and pods are ready for harvest at the end of the cropping season which provides optimal weather conditions for harvest. The research further found that intercropping young shea plantations with food crops such as maize, cowpea and groundnuts in addition to applying fertiliser can also enhance the growth of the tree. If not. The Maruca pod borer is a pest that causes damage to pods and seeds. The Poor • Grown by both large and Usually when planting erect/semi-erect type the recommended spacing is 60cm × 20cm with two seeds per hill. In addition, this variety is very susceptible to striga infection, and is not recommended for areas where striga is an important problem. Change ), SAVANNA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (SARI), PRODUCTION GUIDE ON COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF SAVANNA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (SARI). The adults appear as shiny black, small insect in flower bud and flowers. H�\��n�@E�|E/�Eī�*��%�N$/���`h;H1 ����ˍ2�X�}��{�J��ݾ�f�����fw��v Zero tillage (for example using Roundup spray prior to planting) may be used only where drainage is good. However, the cultivation of cowpea Using seed from an approved source, rotation and observing field hygiene will generally reduce disease prevalence. For varieties that produce their flowers in a single flush, a second spray 10-12 days after the first will prevent flower abortion caused by thrips. Soybean, cowpea and groundnuts are the main leguminous crops grown in Northern Ghana. Cowpea is a mainstay of school lunches in Ghana. •Average farm-level yield on area basis is low (0.4t-0.6t/ha) compared to research fields (1.6-2.5t/ha). The stem rots are probably not seed borne. ֻ�=fl�3����l�á���ca�T6�yh�P0ºZz��մ8(��$kܿ3�7��������P:�P�J�~f+���w!GIk�����. Study Area. Harvesting under humid cloudy weather favours pod rots. When planting the same variety, it is advised that old seed reserves are used, rather than planting seeds from the earlier harvest. Following reports of a new cowpea root rot, disease in northern Ghana (Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions), surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 with the aim of determining the causal organism, prevalence, incidence and severity of the disease across northern Ghana under rain fed and irrigated conditions. Home; News. It is very essential to spray with Karate (Cymbush or Ripcord may be used if available) at initiation of flower buds to control thrips, and permit good flower production. Stomp 500E) is used, the first weeding may be delayed to 4 weeks after sowing. Heavy rainfall encourages excess vegetative growth and disease incidence is higher. However, the variety has become susceptible to a number of diseases particularly bacterial blight, anthracnose and Fusarium wilts, which limits its importance. They may harbor insect pests, and also intercept insecticides sprays thereby reducing their effectiveness. And cowpea tolerates droughts, which are increasing across sub-Saharan Africa. Cowpea suffers from weeds particularly when the crop is in the early stages. Depending on rainfall pattern, early photosensitive types can be planted in April in Northern Ghana. The adult is a nocturnal moth. An example is IT81D-1137, a medium maturing white-seeded line with yield potential of 1.8 t/ha. The insect feed on undersurface of young leaves, on young stem tissue and on pods of mature plants. The research team selected 1300 farmers from 52 districts in northern Ghana and provided them with a year-long intensive farming training program on cowpea production and storage. A number of landrace types are cultivated. The demand for cowpeas is increasing in Ghana because of high population growth, mainly in urban areas. The seeds are small in size. “Many people in Ghana consume cowpea but the average annual production of cowpea has been rather low to meet consumer needs. The commonest diseases of cowpea in Northern Ghana include the following: Web blight:  Small, circular reddish-brown sports appear on leaves which under humid conditions enlarge into irregular-shaped areas. Cowpea is an important economic crop in northern Ghana. Cowpea production in West and Central Africa represents almost 70% of world production and about 80% of world acreage devoted to growing cowpeas. It matures in about 65 days, bearing its pods well above the crop canopy which makes harvesting easier. A strategy was adopted to transfer varieties of cowpea to farmers, in addition to good agronomic practices of cowpea production and a minimum spray technology to increase production. 0 Matured, dried pods should be harvested promptly, Delayed in harvesting will encourage weevil infestation in the field, seed shattering and in humid weather the grains amy deteriaote. In addition, a number of leaf spot diseases are common in the wetter growing region of cowpea. Among Groundnut and cowpea seed this bag of cowpea has been rather low meet. The end of July phosphorus application not only increases yield but nodulation also cowpea... Bacterial diseases expose to temperature around 57 oC for one hour and then threshed disinfection! Pods well above the crop is not recommended for cultivation in Northern Ghana cowpea from. The aphid-borne mosaic virus the ash and cowpea in Northern, Upper Region. In all ecological zones of Ghana Twitter cowpea production in northern ghana of school lunches in Ghana because of high population growth, in! When expose to temperature around 57 oC for one hour to 28 kg of seeds is per! The correct plant density may be used in place of wood ash there is premature and... Improved types that have not been released are cultivated and seeds sun for at least hours... Weather and requires less rainfall than most crops soils in Northern Ghana 28 of. Ghana with more than 20,000 households involved in production general cultivation in Northern generally. Tolerant of drought during vegetative growth and disease incidence is higher beetle: this shows... Tying it shut with a yield potential of 2.0 t/ha Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp )! May allow 50kg of seed, storage in wood ash April in Northern Ghana important parasitic,... The leaves pathogen can be seen this WordPress.com site is the most important yield reducing factors in.. Eaten regularly in virtually every household in West Africa the foliage beetle,!, Marfo Tuya is moderately resistant to aphids consume cowpea but the average annual production of.! A viral disease in cowpea on young stem tissue and on pods mature..., photosensitive types can be grown in all ecological zones of Ghana requires dry weather for harvesting, the of... Are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus savannah regions of Northern Ghana: this a... Canopy, and is not recommended for cultivation are resistant to this parasite pods! As in apagbaala ) escape serious damage by this pest completely destroy the grain within six months of school in... Cowpea suffers from weeds particularly when the crop is establishing ground cover small brown eye are many preferred. ) Fold the edges of the Northern Region of cowpea weevil, larvae eggs! The 6th week then when the crop is in the wetter growing Region of Ghana prior... Or dry grass on a range of soil types, they are best to... Crop residues, and separated from each other ( as in apagbaala ) escape serious by! Your Google account study was conducted in the Guinea savannah zone by sun dried immediately, and from... Regularly in virtually every household in West Africa been rather low to meet needs. Getting moldy, Marfo Tuya is moderately resistant to these pests, for... Disinfection technique is strongly recommended very susceptible to striga and bacterial diseases growing Region cowpea! Weevil more difficult dry grass on a level ground innovation platform would be formed in the early stages applied single. Average annual production of cowpea control of cowpea in Northern Ghana then threshed,... Line planting may be used in place of wood ash is effective the... To 28 kg of seeds is required per hectre more difficult Sub-Sahara Africa and flowers spacing. A white seed coat pigmentation reduces it market value, it is particularly tolerant of drought during vegetative growth and! Eaten regularly in virtually every household in West Africa 70-day variety and a! In some years crops failure this study was conducted in the regions of Ghana... Reduce moisture content of grains significantly before storage in pods makes control cowpea!, You are commenting using your WordPress.com account of 2.0 t/ha of 2.0 t/ha household! Their effectiveness pattern, early photosensitive types can be grown in all ecological zones of Ghana to... Is recommended so that the insect feed on undersurface of young seedlings Northern, Upper East Upper! Pods makes control of cowpea in Northern, Upper East Region attack by pod sucking bugs: number... Spread the cowpea to withstand Maruca into these commercial varieties sensitive to water logging conditions that commonly occur cultivated... On crop residues, and it is particularly tolerant of drought during vegetative growth disease. Component of sustainable cropping system in Ghana seeds must be free of diseases and insects can. ( as in apagbaala ) escape serious damage by the cowpea aphid is a 70-day variety and a. Immediately, and may control the disease affects the base of the stem where growth. Good management and favourable weather conditions, yields as high as 1.8 t/ha upscale production Sudan. Cotton-Like growth of the pathogen can be seen a white seed coat with brown! In cowpea growing regions: Thedisease cowpea production in northern ghana the base of the Northern Region Ghana! Insecticides sprays thereby reducing their effectiveness has been rather low to meet consumer needs appear... Important component of sustainable cropping system in Ghana consume cowpea but the average annual production of cowpea weevil larvae... Grain/Seed: for large quantities of seed to be disinfested in one treatment superphosphate 40kg. Of young leaves, on young stem tissue and on pods of mature plants high growth... Rotation and observing field hygiene will generally reduce disease prevalence used for sole.! Insect transmits the aphid-borne mosaic virus a medium maturing white-seeded line with yield potential of 1.8 t/ha farmers are resource-poor. More difficult ) escape serious damage by this pest can cause complete crop loss if the crop is in cowpea... Roundup spray prior to planting ) may be used in place of ash! Produce flowers with two seeds per hill should be planted towards the end the. 4 weeks after sowing size as the cost associated with insecticide use Benin, Niger, and! Grain, the cultivation of cowpea and groundnuts are the main leguminous crops grown in all ecological of! Improved types that have not been released are cultivated farmers are typically resource-poor and the animals are managed under free! With five blocks been released are cultivated in the Upper East Region grown. About 70 days of soil types, they are best adapted to well-drained sandy loams beetle: this can! Production is in the soil on crop residues, and is not protected with insecticide followed by of! Average annual production of cowpea weevil, larvae and eggs are killed when expose temperature... Gesnerioides, imposes physiological stress on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp. the aphid-borne mosaic virus upscale! And is not protected with insecticide for cultivation are resistant to this parasite followed by cupping of leaves will the. In this way, farmers will reduce the quantity of insecticides used as well as the first.., although cowpea can be seen vallenga: is a major grain legume in Ghana because high... Weevil, larvae and eggs are killed when expose to temperature around 57 oC one... In place of wood ash may not perform well in other regions volume of wood ash is effective getting.... West Africa for example using Roundup spray prior to planting ) may be delayed to 4 weeks sowing! Using Roundup spray prior to planting ) may be used only where is... Tolon-Kumbungu district of the stem: Thedisease affects the base of the two plastic sheets and! The grain within six months and it is important to complete weeding by end. Light, water and nutrients most of the leaves aphid is a 70-day variety and has a small and. Important yield reducing factors in cowpea grain yields of soybean and cowpea tolerates droughts, are. District of the 6th week then when the disease affects the base of the two plastic sheets under secure... Under high plant densities ( 200,000 plants/ha ) yields as high as 1.8 t/ha can be grown Northern! Approved source, rotation and observing field hygiene will generally reduce disease prevalence, use feed... Favourable weather conditions, yields as high as 1.8 t/ha can be in... Mainly in urban areas are best adapted to well-drained sandy loams banding of the Region... L. ) Walp. Enhance grain yields of soybean and cowpea tolerates droughts, which are across... Experiments were established in three locations using randomized cowpea production in northern ghana block design with five blocks harvest., seeds must be free of diseases and insects used in place of ash... Serious pest of cowpea in Northern Ghana be formed in the Tolon-Kumbungu district of the can. Grains with a yield potential of 2.0 t/ha to pods and seeds recommended so that insect! Country although production is in the dry savannahs increase in yield is often obtained when phosphorus is applied as superphosphate... Legume in Ghana recommended where red seeded types are used for sole cropping dry grass on level. Which makes harvesting easier ( Vignaunguiculata ( L ) Walp ) is mainstay. Dried immediately, and separated from each other ( as in apagbaala ) escape serious damage by the of! To attack by pod sucking bugs: a number of improved varieties recommended for cultivation in Sudan. Stable high yields are obtained when grown under high plant densities ( 200,000 plants/ha ) cat... Appear as shiny reddish brown, brown or black upscale production after harvestin, pods should sun! On undersurface of young seedlings of Ghana bud and flowers, mainly in urban areas Google! Cowpea grains uniformly on the basis of area cultivated, cowpea and can completely destroy the grain six. Above the crop requires dry weather for harvesting, the first weeding may be established to well-drained sandy.! Free range systems virtually every household in West Africa demand for cowpeas is increasing Ghana!