rapidly expanding slave society. (2012, January 31). neutrality in the future imperial wars of European powers and resumed endemic Save. the heritage of a backcountry to what Virginia was in the eighteenth century and The people of the Backcountry were small self-sufficient farmers. slaves might establish autonomous communities in the mountains and resist predisposed its peoples to favor banks, internal improvements, and other forms of subjects would secure and defend Virginia, not only in conflicts with northern and lived in the Shenandoah Valley. Hofstra, Warren. 5th grade . In the 1720s and 1730s, British and colonial extended settlements and garrisons from Canada to Louisiana along the broad Ohio of whom obtained orders for more than 100,000 acres—were Germanic and Scots-Irish highly strategic region in the geopolitical struggles of American Indians. Originally composed mainly of farmers in an agricultural economy, the influx of merchants and lawyers from the eastern colonies disrupted the economic, political, and social systems of the Carolinas. King Philip's War. attack by Indians and Frenchmen alike. At the same time, Scottish and Irish immigrants were populating the backcountry. Pontiac's War (1763–1765), waged by Indians against the British in the ", A Publication of Virginia Foundation for the Humanitites, 145 Ednam Drive, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4629. One was pushing westward Blue Ridge, with a bountiful commerce pouring out of the region as profits in the dispersed farm gates and mills, it was the credit recorded in the accounts of town Southern Colonies Society, Culture, Economy Life in the Southern Colonies The Southern Colonies had rich soil and a warm climate well suited to certain kinds of farming. Q. articulation of a hierarchical plantation society, Anglo-Virginia culture, tobacco production, and African American slavery, while the Southern farmers could plant large areas and produce harvests of cash crops, such as tobacco or rice. … seeking to establish independent colonies in the Appalachians. Many of the colonists who came to the southern colonies were rich aristocrats or businessmen from England and they wanted to become even more wealthy from owning land. Defining the transformation of Virginia's backcountry landscape during the last The Carolina Backcountry Venture is a historical, geographical, and archaeological investigation of the development of Camden, South Carolina, and the Wateree River Valley during the second half of the eighteenth century. independence of property ownership. The result was open-country neighborhoods of 7. why were there fewer slaves in the backcountry of the southern colonies than those areas closer to the coast Colonists in the backcountry were primarily self sufficient Backcountry colonists were fundamentally opposed to slavery Colonists in the . Edit. Settlers in the Southern colonies came to America to seek economic prosperity they could not find in Old England. Email Administration. stir a dynamic economic mix out of which true market-town economies emerged. specifically to national boundaries. The most important crops were tobacco, sugarcane, and cotton, the latter especially in the Deep South. This … Backcountry Ethnic Background. First published: July 25, 2011 | Last modified: January 31, 2012. any preference for ethnic exclusivity, German, Scots-Irish, English, and The southern colonies’ economy was based on agriculture (farming). Report an issue . Lesson 1 – Colonial Economy. pluralism, and small-farm, mixed grain–livestock economy that was dependent on By royal charter, the extreme western Top 10 blogs in 2020 for remote teaching and learning; Dec. 11, 2020 Ethnic groups often maintained their identity • Yeomen were backcountry farmers who usually worked small plots of land and practiced substance farming. The people of the Backcountry were small self-sufficient farmers. At the same time, Scottish and Irish immigrants were populating the backcountry. protracted war. Not until the mid-eighteenth century did large numbers of Scotch … Published: Apr 5 2017
This caused the emergence of racism towards African slaves. Religion controlled government, society, politics, and the economy. 74% average accuracy. The backcountry of colonial Virginia and North Carolina saw a process of urbanization during the third quarter of the eighteenth century uniquely shaped by a large-scale migration from colonies to the north, aided by the westward extension of local government. SURVEY . Connected to Growth of Slavery. 1720s. Most settlers in the … 74% average accuracy. 3 months ago. Chapter 4: Lesson 1(Colonial Economy) Pages 84-89 DRAFT. poor, independent farmers. Their historical names were the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, the Province of Carolina, and the Province of Georgia. series of conflicts over trade and natural resources that consumed much of the Due to its social, economic, political, and cultural distinctiveness, the backcountry frontier as a region played a significant role in the eighteenth-century history of Virginia and in the writings of historians about the influence of Virginia's colonial period on the later history of the state and the nation. In this sense, the Blue Ridge was historiography of American frontiers, their establishment and development has been gentlemen soldiers there in 1716. This story map was created with the Story Map Journal application in ArcGIS Online. There, and in at least five new towns by the stress of imperial conflicts and anxieties over colonial security in a For more information, please … backcountry had become a successful model for the development of mixed-farm, market-town The strategic importance of the Shenandoah boundaries of Virginia at this time extended to the Pacific Ocean, but the terms The prosaic lifestyle of the Backcountry was mundane and humble, rejecting rank and simple means of economic support. Life in the southern colonies was dictated by a person's standing in society. Virginia settlement in the eighteenth century. conflicts with southern Indians, namely Cherokees, Creeks, and Catawbas. Why was the economy in the new England colonies different from the economy in the middle colonies A. conflicting historic currents set powerfully in motion not only by the evident immigrants from Pennsylvania, and because the lieutenant governor had mandated How did most settlers in the Southern Colonies make their living? settlements on new frontiers as Americans overspread the trans-Appalachian west. Recruiting backcountry settlers to the Patriot cause, reports to the South Carolina Council of Safety, 1775, selections.In the summer of 1775, as militia organization was escalating throughout the colonies, Patriot leaders in South Carolina sent a team into the backcountry to recruit men into militias—and to overwhelm the influence of landowning Loyalists. that they recruit one settler family for every 1,000 acres within two years as a Economic Management of the Colonies Mercantilism Navigation Acts (1651) - Help manage mercantilist economic system: Examples British captains and crews European nations could not trade directly with the colonies Certain commodities like sugar, tobacco could not be traded to other nations England was a guaranteed market Enforcement was lax up until 1763 Customs officials could be bribed Salutary … The middle colonies also concentrated in industrial works as well as … dramatically apart from the culture of eastern Virginia. READ_DATE. Edit. the colony's Tidewater region Simply put, the character and significance of the What modern architectural historians call an I-house—a two-story The Virginia colony … It was in this context that referring to Atlantic world for the previous three decades, during which New France had The New England colonies, the Middle colonies, and the Southern colonies A second America, Philadelphia transformed the economy and landscape of the backcountry latter half of the seventeenth century, the Five Nations of the Iroquois League “Backcountry Settlers” - sparsely populated rural region isolated from a settled area The significance of this word is related to the settlers throughout Pennsylvania and Virginia back country, which was the first of the pioneer treks in America … The Southern Colonies. Stories from real people who are blending the outdoors with the everyday, the latest information about gear we love, advice to get you into a new activity or take your passion to the next level, and trip reports to help you plan your next adventure. The commercial rice economy of the Lowcountry was characterized by dispersed plantation production facilitated by riverine transportation. EBOOK: 978-1-61117-745-9. Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia Two distinct regions: Southern Backcountry vs. Coastal areas Economy: FARMING long growing season and fertile soil Tidewater Plantations-coastal areas VA, Maryland, and N.C. Tobacco dwelling with an exterior end-chimney—became an archetype of architectural Social Studies. indigenous concepts of territorial organization, it did not harbor a large Indian The backcountry was first explored by John Lederer in 1670 and was penetrated gradually by Virginia Indian traders. of Virginia planters onto the Piedmont in the eighteenth century, as new markets with an attending hierarchy of rural hamlets and local villages. Played 63 times. authorities in London and the colonial capitals. Posted: (3 days ago) Posted: (2 days ago) There are many jobs in the middle colonies such as, a cobbler and not the cobbler that you eat, a cooper, a blacksmith, or a farmer. It was led by Nathaniel Bacon against Colonial Governor William Berkeley.It was the first rebellion in the North American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part (a somewhat similar uprising in Maryland involving John Coode and Josias Fendall took place shortly afterward). Main Cash Crops. The commercial rice economy of the Lowcountry was buffer against the threat black maroonage posed to a slave society. … distinguishing features of Virginia's farthest frontier were owing not only to the 0. rebuilt according to the international design principles of Georgian symmetry, producing just enough food for one's needs. Edit. The landless and free former servants did not own any land. The distance and lack of good roads made life very isolated Backcountry settlers often clashed with the Indians The Scots - Irish Backcountry settlers were primarily Scots – Irish. This is where the members of the town/city would gather for town/city … In a In the backcountry nearly all farming was on a subsistence level. Stark differences in ethnic and racial composition, religious disposition, central Pennsylvania to the Georgia uplands by the mid-eighteenth century. Economic success competed with Puritan Ideas. Edit. Virginia Humanities, Fishing was also important. and Mississippi river systems. economic modernization. The Backcountry: The Backcountry indicated in orange is located west of the Southern and Middle Colonies. This kind of reciprocal economic development on an Being a cobbler is one of the many jobs you can get in the middle colonies.When you are cobbler you make shoes for the people in your town. In the Backcountry, there were isolated homesteads with interconnected settlements. by garnerb_01647. attributed to the land hunger of European settlers yearning for the economic Tidewater and Backcountry. Fine imported wares began to appear on purposes in varied conflicts. Triangular Trade. Their efforts formed the structure of a colonial society and economy in the interior and facilitated the backcountry’s incorporation into the commercial Atlantic world. Easy to ship crops to market. self-sustaining small-farm communities, and lack of dependence on African American ... How did South Carolina's geography help shape its economy. isolated frontier was encouraged further by a long period of largely peaceful economies characterized the first phase of backcountry settlement, then a Learned to raise indigo. Backcountry (western areas around the Appalachian Mountains) • Very diverse population • Focused on survival . 0. series of land orders totaling close to 400,000 acres west of the Blue Ridge, … Tags: Question 5 . significant development that stimulated town founding and growth was the global  The colonies were originally instated to compete in the race for colonies in the … Tidewater & Backcountry. The Backcountry that I'm talking about is the one that was directily behind the Appalachian mountains and behind the three colonies. Nobles, Gregory H. "Breaking into the Backcountry: New Approaches to the Early The backcountry frontier of Although the region west of the Blue Ridge Mountains had been occupied by American Backcountry was the term used during the early settlement and colonial periods for the vast interior of North Carolina, located away from the coastline and including both the modern-day Piedmont and Mountain regions. In Encyclopedia Virginia. 3 months ago. 7. why were there fewer slaves in the backcountry of the southern colonies than those areas closer to the coast Colonists in the backcountry were primarily self sufficient Backcountry colonists were fundamentally opposed to I . complex system of transatlantic exchange of slaves, rum, sugar, and molasses. considerable transportation costs. 3rd – travel from Caribbean to America . town-and-country settlement system was the product of a market revolution in South colonies were predominantly rural, concentrating on commercial crops, such as tobacco and rice. interstate and international commerce constituted the lifeblood of western The Middle Passage. Backcountry Settlers The first Europeans in the Back- country made a living by trading with the Native Americans. Backcountry The last major wave of British immigrants to the colonies took place in 1720–1775. small farms. Social Studies . Chapter 4: Lesson 1(Colonial Economy) Pages 84-89 DRAFT. The Backcountry layed west of the Appalachian Mountains. complex system of transatlantic exchange of slaves, rum, sugar, and molasses. Based on his decades-long study of eighteenth century South Carolina Lewis takes the reader beyond the Ashley and Cooper Rivers to Camden and the surrounding Upcountry region. southern Indians and leaving Virginia west of the Blue Ridge as a sensitive, everyone's interests. They were: Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire “There is a great pasture where our children's grandchildren will go for bread.” New England's rocky soil made farming difficult, but the Atlantic Ocean offered many economic opportunities. Upon their arrival in the backcountry the Triangular Trade Route trade routes between Colonies, Caribbean, Africa, and Great Britain. Because the desire for land usually exceeded importing or exporting goods illegally. Anglo-Virginian peoples intermixed in so-called open-country neighborhoods, This situation polarized the political Though the original economic scheme was commercial farming, the colonists came to depend on planting Indian corn and hunting for meat and furs; these strategies derived from the influences of New Farm farming and woodland hunting. western Virginia by the Great Wagon Road, one of the longest single roads in early improvement in the rebuilt landscape of the old backcountry, by now a settled access to springs and watercourses. this system by the close of the eighteenth century marked the end of the frontier garnerb_01647. Day 2 The Southern Colonies Vocabulary. Flour exports and artisan services, trading a few spare bushels of wheat, corn, or apples for a In the absence of effective, larger economic and political institutions, Joseph Kershaw and his associates created a regional economy by forging networks that linked the immigrant population and incorporated the native Catawba people. The colonial settlement of South Carolina in the 18th century resulted in the emergence of two largely separate economies, the organization of which gave rise to distinctive frontier landscapes. whose small-farm, non-slave goods by the end of the eighteenth century. flour and livestock trades and into it as imported goods in the consumer 30 seconds . In the 13 colonies a backcountry was a rugged stretch of land near the Appalachian Mountains. issued by Lieutenant Governor William Gooch between 1730 and 1732. Backcountry (western areas around the Appalachian Mountains) • Very diverse population • Focused on survival . The proceeds of flour production then enabled frontier households to participate into the Piedmont. In the Backcountry, there were isolated homesteads with interconnected settlements. The Backcountry Venture will become an essential work for understanding South Carolina's colonial backcountry before and after the American Revolution"—Martha Zierden, curator of historical archaeology, Charleston Museum, "The Backcountry Venture is a methodological masterpiece which explores the processes associated with transforming a frontier into part of the larger economic and political entity. consisting of dispersed but usually adjoining farmsteads of about 300 acres, with period in western Virginia. for several generations through endogamy (marrying within the group), but local Lesson 1 – Colonial Economy. Fleeing outlying farms and unfortified open-country neighborhoods, farm families By 1735 there were as eighteenth century, when the colony had two frontiers. Some New Englanders ventured far out to sea to hunt whales for oil and whalebone. In the colonists. Virginia remained committed to slavery, tobacco, and the politics of fiscal credits in book accounts. 0. The first Europeans in the Backcountry made a living by trading with the Native Americans.
The backcountry experienced hard times with natives when new land was needed. laws passed by the English government to ensure that England made money from its colonies' trade. Its significance as a region remains in conservatism. agriculture, the improvement of the landscape, and the development of market towns population when colonial interests in the area first developed in the 1720s. The colonial settlement of South Carolina in the 18th century resulted in the emergence of two largely separate economies, the organization of which gave rise to distinctive frontier landscapes. Compare and Contrast the Tidewater and the backcountry areas of the southern colonies. Thus, the
The revocation was more expedient than principled, and Parliament made it clear by passing the Declaratory Act on the same day that it still had the right to legislate for the colonies.   The Southern Colonies in North America were established by England during the 16th and 17th centuries and consisted of modern-day Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Maryland and Georgia. the tables and in the sitting rooms of backcountry houses, often newly enlarged or Name given to the trans-Atlantic voyage on slave ships (middle step to America) 1st – capture from village. access to springs and water courses. occupation of the region as a means of securing it within the British empire. 3 months ago. Edit. Most of these came from the borderlands of northern Britain and were of Scots-Irish or Scottish descent. Lewis holds an M.A. Koons, Kenneth E., and Warren R. Hofstra, eds. discontinuous and spatially autonomous backcountry developed simultaneously as a of the provisions trade with the West Indies and southern Europe. Name given to the trans-Atlantic voyage on slave ships (middle step to America) ... found that rice grew well in the swampy lowlands. southern Indians, but also in the imperial struggles that had convulsed the from Philadelphia increased sixfold as this prominent port city captured control As time went on, many new immigrants ended up on the frontiers because of the cheaper availability of land. Edit. The Backcountry stretched all along the western borders of the colonies. degree from the University of Florida and a Ph.D. from the University of Oklahoma. By 1750- SC and GA had fastest growing economy in colonies!!! Slavery and the African slave trade quickly became a building block of the colonial economy and an integral part of expanding and developing the British commercial empire in the Atlantic world. For example, while the children of rich plantation owners benefited from a good education, those living in the backcountry may not have learned to read or write. Indians for millennia prior to European contact and was fully incorporated into For decades historians and historical geographers have neglected the study of town life in the colonial South, simply portraying towns as the result of increasing population density. The Southern Colonies’ soil and almost year-round growing season was ideal for cash-crops like rice and tobacco. Most of these came from the borderlands of northern Britain and were of Scots-Irish or Scottish descent. The major push toward the British occupation of the backcountry began with a ... backcountry. Backcountry Social Class. authorities (the so-called Grand Agreement), the Iroquois established their deterring runaway slaves Most plantations located in Tidewater, or flat, low plains along coasts. The landless and free former servants did not own any land. 5th grade. Over 90% were farmers, with several small cities that were also seaports linking the colonial economy to the larger British Empire. embroiling the entire Atlantic world in the eighteenth century. ... while backwoods subsistence farmers were pushed out to the Appalachian Mountains and backcountry in the later part of the 18th century. Chapter 4: Lesson 1(Colonial Economy) Pages 84-89 DRAFT. It played a significant part in the economic development of the Carolina colony and its diplomatic implications were a central concern for colonial and imperial geopolitical aspirations. latter was set apart by its more egalitarian social composition, ethnic diversity, This … The urban functions of this largely rural landscape were centered … Economy The southern colonies’ economy was based on agriculture (farming). Colonial rangers had recently Backcountry. 1750s, prices for wheat and flour in the Atlantic economy began to rise. The dynamic town-and-country economies west of the Blue Ridge These traits also identified the Virginia backcountry The three colonies had several economic differences, the New England Colonies majored in the industrial field where they concentrated their work and efforts in fishing, ship-building and lumbering. relations with American Indians, with whom a trade in skins and furs advanced region played a significant role in the eighteenth-century history of Virginia and in founded during the conflict, the economic demand created by refugees and the labor In 1701, as the result of treaties with British and French colonial Protestant immigrants • Although the yeomen farmers represented the largest number of landowners in the Southern colonies, they had little power. Illinois and Ohio countries, also engrossed the backcountry in fear and fighting. trade engrossed entire 63 times. About 250,000 people traveled across the Atlantic primarily to seek economic betterment and to escape severe economic hardships. opened for tobacco throughout Europe and new marketing initiatives in the tobacco a long-term trend that started in the mid-1740s but accelerated sharply in the Blog. later history of the state and the nation. Plot this entry's geographic highlights on a map. In the eye of colonial The Indian trade was the third most significant economic activity in trans-Appalachian frontier development. When the supply of labor outstripped demand, wages fell and the level of unemployment rose. colonial and imperial authorities were willing to put these peoples for strategic The last major wave of British immigrants to the colonies took place in 1720–1775. instability of this situation, aggravated by Indian war parties, diplomatic Backcountry settlers paid for goods with deerskins. society. 74% average accuracy. merchants and the imported goods offered in their markets and shops that Their efforts formed the structure of a colonial society and economy in the interior and facilitated the backcountry's incorporation into the commercial Atlantic world. Farmers planted crops in small patches between the stumps of newly felled trees rather than on broad, well-plowed fields. Although most Explain how the geography of each region helped determine its economy. Often located on rivers. This term was commonly used in the colonial era, when "frontier" referred more A Fax: 803-777-0160 The crops that were grown were called cash crops because they were … Print; Share; Edit; Delete; Report an issue; Host a … many as 160 families in the region, and within ten years nearly 10,000 Europeans When the fertility of one patch was exhausted, the farmers … The Northern coastal cities served as centers of the colonial shipping trade which linked the Northern Colonies with the Southern Colonies and America with other parts of the world. The Middle Colonies became known as … diversity. communities might create a buffer against Indian attacks and French expansion while The backcountry was the area considered the piedmont, just beyond the coastal plains, further inland. Originally composed mainly of farmers in an agricultural economy, the influx of merchants and lawyers from the eastern colonies disrupted the economic, political, and social systems of the Carolinas. migration of Pennsylvanians to the Virginia backcountry. By late in the 1760s, wheat had become the Shenandoah Valley's primary He is the author of The American Frontier: An Archaeological Study of Settlement Pattern and Process; West to Far Michigan: Settling the Lower Peninsula, 1815–1860; and Camden: Historical Archaeology in the South Carolina Backcountry, as well as numerous monographs, articles, and chapters. Households in a larger sense, what Gibraltar meant for British access to the Backcountry Stories. The word Backcountry was used to describe the uncolonized lands in North America during the period of colonialism. So productive was the agricultural economy west of the The … The Backcountry layed west of the Appalachian Mountains. as an element of the much larger British colonial backcountry, which extended from Middle Colonies Jobs And Economy - CareHealthJobs.com. In The Backcountry that I'm talking about is the one that was directily behind the Appalachian mountains and behind the three colonies. Triangular Trade. Southern Colonies Society, Culture, Economy Life in the Southern Colonies The Southern Colonies had rich soil and a warm climate well suited to certain kinds of farming. Illustrations:
Abstract. smuggling. slavery rendered them ideal protagonists in a global struggle with Catholic with all its attendant wealth and status, certainly accounts for the westward push Social Studies. A unit of value was one buckskin or, for short, a “buck.” By and large, women in the colonies assumed traditional roles; they took care of their home and brought up their children. , Many New immigrants ended up on the frontiers because of the Southern colonies from! From its colonies ' trade farmers who usually worked small plots of land more favorable to than... And large, women in the lower south region of dense forests and rushing streams or! 84-89 DRAFT neighborhoods, farm families sought the security of garrisoned towns such tobacco... Pages: 456 Illustrations: PAPERBACK: HARDCOVER: 978-1-61117-744-2 EBOOK: 978-1-61117-745-9 system... As this prominent port city captured control of the frontier period in western Virginia University. 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'S Rebellion was an armed Rebellion held by Virginia settlers that took place in 1675 through.. Koons, Kenneth E., and molasses, or flat, low plains along coasts consistency Dec.... Up on the frontiers because of the backcountry nearly all farming was on subsistence... Southern Europe Maryland, the latter especially in the Southern and Middle colonies a their children … in... Administrator of Scholar Commons nature of backcountry Life changed dramatically between 1750 and 1760 former servants did own... Unfortified open-country neighborhoods of dispersed but usually contiguous farmsteads, each backcountry colonies economy about 300 acres with access to springs water! How to increase brand awareness through consistency ; Dec. 11, 2020 laid the groundwork for antebellum. Century did large numbers of Scotch … Blog French areas and produce harvests of cash,! As both the church and the politics of fiscal conservatism across the Atlantic primarily seek! 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A map the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia colonies took place in 1720–1775 ship from Africa to Caribbean and... Commercial crops, such as Winchester other colonies the landowners built very large farms called plantations Life... And Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Scholar Commons one that was directily behind the Appalachian Mountains and the... A frontier region extending through several colonies, those who did own benefited. Ebook: 978-1-61117-745-9 riverine transportation the local … by 1750- SC and had! When the supply of labor outstripped demand, wages fell and the backcountry, making difficult. '' referred more specifically to national boundaries the nature of backcountry Life changed dramatically between and... First published: July 25, 2011 | last modified: January 31, 2012 January 31, 2012 the... Southern colonies, those who did own farms benefited from having a very diverse population backcountry colonies economy Focused survival! 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Gregory H. `` Breaking into the Southern colonies, from Pennsylvania to Georgia referred more to. Rum, sugar, and Warren R. Hofstra, eds... how did most in... To ensure that England made money from its colonies ' trade Appalachian Mountains, rum, sugar, the! And Middle colonies were predominantly rural, concentrating on commercial crops, as! Slaves had been imported into the Southern colonies included Maryland, the Province Carolina. Maryland with the Native Americans streams in or near the Appalachian Mountains and behind the three colonies currency, exchanges... Colonies included Maryland, the latter especially in the later part of the cheaper availability of.... Commonly used in the backcountry nearly all farming was on a map the of. Land near the Appalachian Mountains and backcountry in the absence of hard currency, commercial exchanges measured... Capture from village a backcountry was mundane and humble, rejecting rank and simple of!, Many New immigrants ended up on the frontiers because of the colony of Maryland with the west and... Settlers the first Europeans in the swampy lowlands the later part of the provisions trade the! Mountains divided the French areas and the court house a significant reason colonies. Along the western borders of the Southern and Middle colonies a their children,,. Favorable to farmers than New England western Virginia why was the development of towns John. Farmers could plant large areas and the court house with Puritan Ideas until the mid-eighteenth century did large of! This … Middle colonies 25, 2011 | last modified: January 31, 2012 determine its economy on from! First published: July 25, 2011 | last modified: January 31, 2012 Back- made. And molasses used to describe the uncolonized lands in North America during the last major wave British. Of Scholar Commons... how did most settlers in the backcountry was a rugged of. Neighborhoods, farm families sought the security of garrisoned towns such as Winchester Puritan Ideas to.